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APES Earth test

seismology the branch of earth science thta combines mathematics and physics to explain the nature of earthquakes and how they can be used to gather information about Earth beyond our view
lithosphere strained beyond their limit, yield, and "spring back" to their original shape, rapidly releasing stored energy.
this energy radiates in all directions from the source of the earthquake, called the ____, in the form of _____ ______ focus, seismic waves
seismograph instruments are located throughout the world and amplify and record the ground motions produced by passing seismic waves on seismograms
P waves travel through Earth and have the greatest velocity and, therefore reach the seismograph station first. Also have smaller amplitudes and shorter periods than the other waves
S waves travel through Earth
surface or L waves arrive at the seismograph station last because they must travel longer distance alomg Earth's outer layer
epicenter the point on Earth's surface directly above the focus
amplitudes the range from the mean, or average, to the extreme
periods the time, interval between the arrival of successive wave crests
Plate tectonics Earth's crust is broken into plates which move relative to each other, movement caused by convection currents dissipating Earth's internal heat
Volcanoes and earthquakes occur at plate tectonics
Divergent plate boundaries sea floor spreading, new crust generated, mid ocean ridges
Convergent plate boundaries oceanic plate subducts under ocean or continental plates, causes volcanoes and trenches. They produce boundaries.
Transform boundaries plates slide past each other, causes earthquakes
Rock cycle relationship of rocks and formation processes
rock types according to origin igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
minerals are not renewable
ore concentration of mineral is high enough so that it is profitable to mine
mineral reserve identified deposits, profitable to mine
surface mining strip mining, cheaper, less dangerous to miners. Problems: toxic runoff, acid drainange
soil texture size of soil particles; sand, silt, clay
humus organic material in soil
leaching removal of dissolved materials by water moving through
permeability ability to transmit water
porosity ability to hold water
solution to soil problems contour plowing, crop rotation, conservation tillage, organic fertilizers
troposhere 0-17 km above Earth's surface, site of weather, organisms, most vapor
stratosphere 17-48 km above surface, site of weather, organisms, most water vapor
composition of earth's atmosphere 78% N2, 21% O2, 0.9% argon, 0,0035% CO2.
original atmosphere was H2 and He, Organisms have altered atmosphere increases O2 and N2 decreased
Weather daily atmospheric conditions (temp and precip), climate long term atmospheric conditions
Global circulation patterns caused by uneven heating of earth's surface and earth's rotation
ENSO El Nino Southern Oscillation; see-sawing of air pressure over Southern Pacific
El Nino
effects of El Nino disrupts food chains, alters precipitation patterns, fewer Atlantic hurricanes
ozone depletion caused bbbbt CFC'S, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride (CCI4), halons, methyl bromide all break down stratospheric ozone
effects of ozone depletion increased UV radiation reaches Earth's surface; causes increased skincanceer, cataracts, decreased plant growth and marine productivity
startospheric ozone layer approximately 20-30 km above the Earth's surface (12-18 miles)
biotic living organisms
abiotic non-living organisms
Producer/autotroph organisms that CAN make their own food
consumer/heterotroph organisms that CANNOT make their own food
aerobiotic respiration oxygen used by producers, consumers, decomposers to break down complex organic compounds and release energy
major trophic levels producers-primary, consumers-secondary,consumers-tertiary consumers-etc
energy flow in food webs solar energy converted to chemical energy, eventually returned as hear. only 10% transferred to next trophic level
why is only 10
Created by: danat214