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# Atmospheric Exam

### Semester 1

A _______________________ is best described as an educated guess. Hypothesis
___________________________________ is a series of logical steps followed by someone when they are doing research. The Scientific Method
___________________________________ the variable which the experimenter manipulates. Independent Variable
___________________________________ the variable which changes in response to the change made by the experimenter . Dependent Variable
List the units used for volume _______________________________________________ . cubic in, cm, and ft Mili, Centi, and Kilo Liters
List the units used for mass __________________________________________________ . Mili, Centi, and Kilo Grams
What is the formula for density and how are the units written? ____________________________________________________________ . Density=Mass/Volume
The density of water is _____________________________. 1 kg/m³
If an object has a density greater than 1 it will (sink/float) when placed in water. sink
If an object has a density less than 1 it will (sink/float) if placed in water. float
Remember, not only can solid objects have different densities. So can liquids. Example: water, oil, syrup all have different densities.
Spheres of Earth-organisms biosphere
Spheres of Earth-atmosphere the gaseous envelope surrounding the geosphere
Spheres of Earth-Cyosphere the part of the Earth’s surface where water is in the solid form
Spheres of Earth-Anthrosphere human beings and our constructions
Spheres of Earth-Geosphere solid earth, sometimes called the lithosphere
Spheres of Earth-Hydrosphere the water portion of our planet. In gas, liquid and solid form.
The largest portion of freshwater is found in ___________________ . Glaciers
Which process in the carbon cycle removes carbon in the form of CO2, from the atmosphere?______________________________ Photosynthesis
What happened to the original atmosphere which was made of Hydrogen and Helium? Blown away by solar winds
Carbon is returned to the atmosphere in unnaturally large quantities in the __________________________________ . Fossil Fuel Emissions
Describe and give an example of a carbon sink. _____________________________________________________________ A Carbon Sink is where carbon is absorbed ex. Forrest
Name the instrument used to measure barometric pressure ___________________________ . Barometer
Name the instrument used to measure wind speed __________________ . Anemometer
Name the instrument used to identify the direction of the wind ___________________________ . Wind Vane
What geologic event indicated that a significant amount of oxygen became available in the earth’s atmosphere and oceans? It involved rocks which contained iron…… Can cause iron to rust
Which word best describes air? Compound, mixture, or Arir MIXTURE
List the top 4 components of the atmosphere and give the approximate percentages of each. Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21% Argon .934% Carbon Dioxide .036%
Name the component of the atmosphere which is naturally occurring in all three states of matter in the atmosphere? ______________________ H2O
On what basis are the layers of the atmosphere determined? What they contain
The molecular formula for ozone is ______________ O3
Why is ozone so important to living things? Protects us from UV rays
What is the major negative consequence of ozone depletion? Global Warming, Cancer, Melanoma
What is the source of energy that ionizes atoms in the atmosphere? The Sun/Solar Radiation
What causes the different color associated with the aurora borealis? The particles collide with gasses and it causes them to glow. Different Gasses make different colors
Why does the thermosphere have an extremely high temperature but you would experience it as cold? molecules move slowly
One revolution is measured as 1 year
One rotation on earth's axis is measured as 1 day
Label winter and summer solstice, perihelion, aphelion, vernal and fall equinox. /Users/Parker/Desktop/earth-tilt.gif
Draw the earth and label the Tropics, the equator, the arctic circle and Antarctic circle. Label the latitudes as well. /Users/Parker/Desktop/f0662-02.gif
Describe and give examples for potential energy Potential energy is energy that is stored. A ball at the top of a hill
Describe and give examples for kinetic energy Kinetic energy is energy being used. A ball rolling down a hil
Energy transfer processes: Convection uneven heating that creates currents
Energy transfer processes: Radiation travels in waves
Energy transfer processes: Conduction heat transfer through the collision of atoms
Energy transfer processes: Advection transfer in a horizontal direction - wind
The type of energy transfer of the least importance to the study of meteorology is _____________________ conduction
All of Earth’s atmosphere’s energy originated in the form of __________________ radiation
Draw a wave length and label the period and height. /Users/Parker/Desktop/common-waves-features.jpg
Solar Radiation energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles, from the sun
Terrestrial radiation occurs primarily in the form of _____________ . long wave
Name the source of heat for Earth’s atmosphere ____________________________________ . UV Rays from the sun
Name the major green house gases and in which layer of the atmosphere they primarily occur. Water Vapor- Troposphere Nitrogen & Oxygen- Stratosphere
Name factors that influence the sensation of temperature that the human body feels. altitude, temperature, geographic position, humidity, and albedo
Compare Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin scales. Be sure to relate ice and steam points. Fahrenheit- 32-212 Celsius- 0-100 Kelvin- 273-373
Identify windward and leeward coasts with an illustration. /Users/Parker/Desktop/image010.gif
Identify Poleward and equatorward moving currents in each hemisphere and identify them as warm or cool. warm
Describe locations on earth which have the largest annual temperature changes from summer to winter. Inland and high altitudes
Describe when the temperatures on earth’s surface decrease in relation to solar radiation. Late Afternoon
What is the primary reason for land areas warming up more rapidly than areas covered by water. Different heating on land and water, land is opaque
Draw a picture with the hydrologic cycle. Include the 6 processes that make the cycle work! /Users/Parker/Desktop/hydro_5cycle.jpg
Heat energy that does not produce a temperature change but becomes stores in the matter is called __________________________ heat. latent
Temperature changes in which heat is neither added nor subtracted are called ________________________ temperature changes. adiabetic
When water vapor condenses, heat is ________________________ by the water vapor. absorbed
List the changes of state for water and describe each. Freeze- L > S Condense- G > L Evaporation- L > G Sublimation- S > G Deposition- G > S
Be able to use a relative humidity and dew point chart using dry and wet bulb temps. the difference between wet and dry ^
Describe how Relative humidity changes with temperature changes or addition of water. Depends on the amount of water vapor and the air temperature
At what time of day does the highest relative humidity usually occur? early morning
Relative humidity can be calculated using a sling psychrometer and noting the difference between the _____________ and ___________________ readings. dry bulb, wet bulb
Define dew point temperature. temperature where condensation occurs
In nature, what keeps atmospheric gases from escaping into space? gravity
What has to happen to a molecule of liquid water for it to evaporate? must come in contact with a dust particle
Name the mechanisms of lift that cause air to rise. Geographic Lifting, Frontal Wedging, Convergence, and Localized Lifting
What most often causes localized convective lifting? unequal surface heating
Describe environmental lapse rate. change in temperature, altitude
Adiabatic temperature changes are caused by changes in occurs in the addition or removal of energy
The temperature of rising air parcels ___________________________ as they move upward. increases
Which process is an interaction between the earth’s biosphere and the atmosphere? ____________________________ . evaporation
Evaporation is an example of transfer of water between which of earth’s spheres? ____________________________________________________ Hydrosphere and Atmosphere
Identify how the composition of the atmosphere changed over time. Be able to list the 4 major components from least to greatest for each of 4 of the developmental stages of the atmosphere. 1st- lightest and least dense 2nd- formed through volcanic outgassing (N, H2O, and CO2) 3rd- Formed by photosynthesis 4th- todays atmosphere
Created by: Glassboy93