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Science chapter 19

heredity passing of traits from parents to offspring
trait an inherited characteristics of an organism
allele one of the different forms of a trait
chromosome a rod or x shaped structure made of DNA
gene a section of DNA that contains the information of one trait
genetics study of heredity
dominant A gene that determines a phenotype in combination with another gene it can mask other forms
recessive a gene that is only expressed if there are no other dominant genes present, otherwise they are hidden or masked
homozygous having two identical alleles for a trait (they are the same)
heterozygous having one dominant and one recessive allele for a trait (they are different)
genotype combination of genes for a trait
phenotype way the genes are expressed, the way the organism appears for a trait
mitosis nuclear division producing two identical cells with full number of chromosomes
meiosis nuclear division producing four (non-identical gametes) with half the number of chromosomes
gamete a sex cell (involved in sexual reproduction)
sperm the male gamete
egg the female gamete
somatic cell a normal body cell, not a gamete
fertilization the union (joining) of a male gamete and a female gamete
zygote the cell resulting from fertilization
Punnett square tool used to predict gene combinations and expressed traits of an offspring
Who was Gregor Mendel? a monk in Australia, born in 1822
What did Mendel study garden peas, lifted the confusion on how traits are passed on from one generation to the next
An upper case letter represents what? the dominant gene. for example he used "T" to describe the dominant Tallness gene
lower case letter is for what? recessive gene
What happens with mitosis occurs in humans? all 23 pairs of chromosomes duplicate and a full se of chromosomes passes into each daughter cell.
Why is mitosis important because we need exact copies of cells to replace old or dying cells throughout our bodies
What happens in sexual reproduction a new individual is formed that has different looks, abilities, and behavior from its parents
what happens in meiosis parents produce sex cells (eggs or sperm) that contain exactly half as many chromosomes as body cells.
each male sex cell (sperm)has how many single chromosomes? 23 single chromosomes
each female sex cell (egg) has how many single chromosomes 23 single chromosomes
How many possible combinations can genes be paired 4
Who is Reginald Punnett English Geneticist at Cambridge University
What did Reginald Punnett do? developed a way to display the possible ways that genes could pair during genetic cross
What was the display called that Reginald Punnett developed? "Punnett square"
What did the Punnett square look like a large box divided into four small boxes
Where do you write the trait from the female parent in the Punnett square? above the square
where did the same trait for the male parent go left of the square
what did you write inside the squares the possible outcomes
What does the Punnett square show? the probability that specific genotypes will occur (it does not predict which gene will become the offspring's genotype)
Who is Dolly a sheep that was cloned in march 1997
How was Dolly created from the DNA of just one parent
Dolly is from what species a white sheep called Finn Dorset
How are identical twins formed? from a single Zygote, they have identical genes
how are fraternal twins formed from two different fertilized eggs. fraternal twins are not identical. they are like same ages sibling's. they do not have identical genes
Created by: mickeyfan1