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Board review physio

Chemoreceptors in the _______ function as part of the inspiratory and expiratory control center Medulla Oblongata
The medulla oblongata is sensitive to ___ and ____, while the peripheral chemoreceptors, ____ and _____ are primarily sensitive to PCO2. CO2 and H+, carotid and aortic bodies
Respiration is stimulated by ______ increased PCO2, increased H+, and low PO2
The apneustic and pneumotaxic center lie in the ______, and function to _______. Pons, limit the duration of inspiration and increase respiration rate
In diabetes mellitus, the body is in which state? metabolic acidosis (inc in ketone bodies)
During vomiting the body is in metabolic alkalosis, what is happening to the H+ cencentration, PCO2 and respiration? decrease in H+ and inhibited respiration causes an inc in PCO2 and inc in H+
In metabolic acidosis, what is happening? Respiration is stimulated causing you to blow off CO2, thus lowering the H+ concentration
Hyperventilation causes respiratory _______, low ___ and ____. alkalosis, H+ and PCO2
With hyperventilation, why breath into a bag? Re-breathing expired air inc PCO2 and returns pH to normal
With hypoventilation you are experiencing respiratory ____. acidosis (low pH)
The neurohypophysis is connected to the brain via what? Supraoptic Hypophyseal Tract
What hormones are released from the posterior pituitary? ADH/vasopressin and Oxytocin
This hormone, _____, creates aquaporins in the ______ of the kidney to reabsorb H2O and inc BP ADH, collecting duct
_______ causes milk let down and causes uterine contractions during labor Oxytocin
What hormone stimulates milk production post partum? Prolactin
The anterior pituitary is influenced in two ways, what are they? 1. Negative feedback 2. Releasing factors from the hypothalamus
GH Releasing Factor is responsible for releasing what two hormones from the Anterior Pituitary? 1. GH 2. Somatostatin
An increase in GH produces ____, while a decrease produces _____ gigantism, dwarfism
What hormone stimulates the adrenal gland? ACTH (Corticotropin)
What stimulates sperm production in males? FSH
The hormone, _____, stimulates ______ to produce Testosterone LH, interstitial cells of Leydig in the testes
What is responsible for ovulation in females? LH
______ hormone takes calcium out of the ____ and puts it into ______ Calcitonin, blood, bone
Where is the melanocyte stimulating hormone produced? Pars Intermedia
The ______ cells of the thyroid produce its major hormone ______, that functions to regulate metabolism parafollicular, calcitonin
The major horm from the thyroid is ______, but the active form in the body is _____ Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3)
Decreased TH in children produces ____, while in adults it produces _____ cretin, myedema
Graves disease is related to an ______ in TH increased
Parathyroid hormone ______ blood calcium, _____ reabsorption of phosphate increases, decreases
What hormone takes Ca out of bone and puts it in blood? PTH/Parathyroid hormone/Parathorome
A decrease in PTH causes ____ while an increase causes ______ muscle twitching/tetany, BP
From the capsule to the medulla, name the layers of the adrenal cortex and the major hormone that they produce. capsule 1. Zona Glomerulosa: Aldosterone 2. Zona Fasciculata: Cortisol 3. Zona Reticularis: Androgens medulla
What hormone is increased with osteitis fibrosa cystica? PTH
Aldosterone _____ Na excretion and ____ K+ excretion in the distal tubule of the kidneys reduces, increases (aka reabsorbs Na and H2O, excrete K+)
Low calcium would affect the ___ gland while high calcium affects the ____ gland parathyroid, thyroid
What energy sources is cortisol involved in the metabolism of? This causes your blood sugar to ___ and your WBC count to ____ carbohydrate, fats, proteins stay up/raise, drop
The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus produces Oxytocin
The adrenal medulla is derived from ______ and secretes _______ neural crest cells, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (Epi)
NE and Epi are secreted in response to _____ and function to _______ sympathetic stimulation, raise blood sugar from the liver
Somatostatin is a horm that is produced in two places, ___ and ____, causing the inhibition of separate hormones 1. hypothalamus (inh GH) 2. delta cells of the pancreas (inh insulin, glucagon, gastrin, secretin, renin)
A peptide hormone, ______, is formed in the liver to mediate the affects of GH on _______ Somatomedin, cartilage
FSH stimulates the ______ to produce what hormone? ovarian follicle, Estrogen
Progesterone is produced by the _____ functioning to _____ corpus luteum, 1.inc uterine lining 2. inc body temp
Estrogen is high during the ___ stage of the menstrual cycle while progesterone is high during ______ stage. Proliferative phase (1st stage) Secretory/ 2nd stage (after ovulation)
The pancreas produces what three hormones and from what cells? 1. Insulin from beta cells 2. Glucagon from alpha cells 3. Somatostatin from delta cells
Which hormone is also called the thermogenic hormone? Progesterone (for its ability to inc body temp)
The ______ plexus is in the muscular layer of the GI tract while the _____ plexus is in the sumucosa. Myenteric/Auerbach Meissner
Digestion of starch begins in the mouth with this form of amylase Ptyalin
______ cells produce HCL which then stimulates ____ cells to produce pepsinogen Parietal cells, Chief cells (the chief drinks pepsi)
This substance is involved with the absorption of vit B12 and is produced by parietal cells in the stomach Intrinsic factor
Gastrin, which increases _______ secretions, is released from what cells? gastric, mucosa cells of the stomach
How does secretin influences the pancreas, duodenum and the stomach? 1. Stimulates the flow of pancreatic juices (amylase & lipase) 2. buffers acid chyme 3. decreases gastric motility
These hormone is released from the small intestine in response to fat in the diet. CCK Cholecystokinin and enterogastrone
What are two hormones that close the pyloric sphincter? enterogastrone and CCK
What two hormones break down proteins that are activated by Enterokinase? Trypsin and chymotrypsin
What hormone causes the contraction of the gall bladder and stops the action of gastrin? CCK (to digest fats!)
What structure in the kidney filters blood? Glomerulus
What is the fate of proteins and glucose in the blood when it is filtered? Proteins don't pass through (ALL amino acids are reabsorbed in the proximal tubule) Glucose can pass through
The Loop of Henle has two separate affects on water, what are they? Descending limb: Osmotic P moves water into interstitial ts Ascending limb: impermeable to water
Sodium is normally reabsorbed in three areas, what are they and what is the main one? Prox tubule (most) Ascending limb Distal tubule
What promotes reabsorption at the peritubular capillaries? 1. Colloid osmotic pressure 2. Hydrostatic pressure
Where is the most Cl- absorbed? Prox tubule
K+ and H+ are normally secreted at the ______ distal tubule
Where is the most water and glucose reabsorbed? Prox tubule
Interlobar artery flows into the ______, that detects a decrease in blood ___ and ____ Afferent arteriole, pressure and volume
Aldosterone has the most affect at which part of the kidney? distal tubule
Renin is released in response to ____, by ______ into the blood decreased BP and blood volume, JG cells
The liver produces ______ that is cleaved by renin into angiotensin I Angiotensionogen
The enzyme ____ in the _____ cleaves Angiotensin I into Angiotensin II ACE/Angiotensin converting enzyme, lung
What is the function of Angiotensin II? 1. Stim thirst 2. VC vessels 3. Stim ADH 4. St adrenal cortex to secrete Aldosterone from the zona glomerulosa
Where does the substance urine officially start? collecting ducts
The major caylx flows into _____, which flows into the renal pelvis renal sinus (minor caylx -> major caylx -> renal sinus -> renal pelvis -> ureter)
Blood flows from the glomerulus into what? Efferent arteriole
This is a law that states that anterior spinal roots are motor and dorsal are sensory Bell Mangendie
In Boyles law, for a volume of gas one variable remains constant while two others vary inversely at constant temp, a volume of gas varies inversely with pressure
The majority of carbon dioxide is found in what form? HCO3 bicarbonate ion (70%)
Charles law states what? at constant pressure, a volume of gas varies directly with absolute pressure
the solubility of gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas is what law? Henry
23% of carbon dioxide is found in what form? in combination with hemoglobin
What does ventricular pressure depend on? muscular tension, size and shape of the heart - this is LaPlace law
Frank Starlings law states what? Cardiac output is directly proportional to diastolic filling, or CO = Venous Return
What percentage of carbon dioxide is dissolved in the blood? 7%
What is it called when you can not pump all of the blood out of your heart? congestive heart failure
What is the most common cause of left sided heart failure? hypertension
What two arteries carry de-oxygenated blood? Pulmonary artery and Umbilical artery
Which vessel has the highest concentration of blood in the body? Pulmonary vein
What percentage of oxygen is carried by hemoglobin? 97%
How is the pacemaker of the heart stimulated to contract? it is self excitatory (SA node is the pacemaker)
The pacemaker is excitatory to ________, then to the _____ which delays the impulse internodal pathways, AV node
What sends an impulse to the ventricles? Purkinje system
Where is the pacemaker of the heart located? crista terminalis of the RA
What does the P wave represent in an EKG? atrial depolarization (atrial contraction to get the last 30% of the blood out of the atria) Also called End diastolic filling time
Isovolumetric contraction is represented by what? PR interval - impulse delayed so the ventricles can build tension
What represents atrial repolarization in an EKG? nothing, it is covered up by the QRS complex
What represents repolarization of the papillary muscles? U wave
What would it mean if your patient had an altered ST segment? myocardial infarction/acute cardiac failure (could also cause an inverted T wave)
Right sided heart failure is causing backup in the IVC, where would it backup from there? liver and legs
What is the most common cause of isolated right sided heart failure? lung condition/corpulmonaly
How would a primary heart block show up on an EKG? elongated PR interval
What is heard during the 1st heart sound? closure of AV valves during isometric contraction
In an EKG, what signifies the end of systole? Dicrotic notch
Tricuspid stenosis would occur in diastole or systole? Diastole
What two variables would give you a persons Inspiratory Capacity? IRV + TV (inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume)
Inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume and expiratory reserve volume all together would represent what? vital capacity
What is your tidal volume controlled by? pneumotaxic center
To take a deep breath you must shut off _____ with ______. pneumotaxic center, apneustic center (represents TV + IRV)
All respiration is controlled by what? Dorsal motor nucleus of the Vagus nerve
Would an aortic stenosis be diastolic or systolic? systolic
Under what conditions will hemoglobin give up oxygen? 1. inc Temp 2. inc DPG/Diphosphoglycerate 3. inc H+ 4. inc CO2
In the red blood cell, water and carbon dioxide combine using what enzyme? carbonic anhydrase
What should be the normal pH range of the blood? 7.35-7.45
The Bohr Effect is a property of what molecule? hemoglobin
A decrease in pH would cause the dissociation curve for the Bohr effect to shift in what direction? right it shifts right when you 1. inc Temp 2. inc DPG/Diphosphoglycerate 3. inc H+ 4. inc CO2
What mineral sets the threshold for nerve firing? Calcium Ca++ controls the Na+ gates
The ascending phase of an action potential represents what? Depolarization, receptors leaking Na+ into the cell
A receptor is in the hyperpolarized period, could it fire an action potential? yes, but it would need an extremely large stimulus and to activate the Na/K pumps
What does the dorsum sellae cover? the infundibulum/stalk from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary
In a relaxed muscle, what prevents actin and myosin from combining? ATP attached to the myosin crossbridges tropomyosin-troponin attached to actin (actin and myosin combining = contraction)
Ca is released from the _____ at the ___ junction causing the release of _____ to the T tubules sarcoplasmic reticulum, myoneural junction, acetylcholine
What is the resting membrane potential of muscle? of a neuron? muscle -90mV neuron -70mV
What is the minimum current strength needed for an action potential to occur? Rheobase
What are the effector cells of the parasympathetic nervous system? muscarine (activated by ACh)
What brain waves would be normal in a child but abnormal in an adult? theta
What brain waves do you experience during REM sleep? beta (also during specific mental activity)
What brain waves are never seen during sleep in a normal adult? alpha, only seen in quiet awake periods
What 4 areas are only stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system? 1. adrenal medulla 2. erector pili muscle (hair) 3. sweat glands 4. smooth muscle of arterioles that supply periph blood vessels for VC
Which band within the sarcomere remains the same with contraction? A band
Which band within the sarcomere disappears with contraction? H band
Define a motor unit the functional unit of muscle, consists of the alpha motor neuron and all the fibers it innervates
Shortening of a muscle belly is considered what type of contraction? concentric
What type of contraction produced the most strength? Eccentric contraction, lengthening of the muscle belly
What color are slow twitch muscle fibers and why? red because of a higher abundance of myoglobin
What is the energy source for fast twitch muscle fibers? anaerobic glycolysis
Name the two exceptions to the smooth muscle is a "multiunit muscle" rule? 1. iris of eye 2. pili erector tissue they are single unit smooth muscle
In smooth muscle, what is the analogous to troponin? calmodulin
In a smooth muscle contraction, what enzyme binds calcium to calmodulin myosin kinase
Created by: Boards