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Science Exam

scientific method ask questions, hypothesize and predict, test hypothesis, analyze results, draw conclusions, communicate results
experimental design controlled experiments to test a hypothesis, include a table with a dependent and independent variable
measurements used in biology meter, kilogram, second, ampere, Kelvin, mole, candela, The SI is used all around the world for measurements
SI System an internationally accepted system for measurement
characteristics of life any thing that has cells, responds to stimuli, maintains homeostasis, can reproduce, grow and develop, needs nutrients, has organization, uses energy, and has DNA
taxonomy the branch of science concerned with classification, especially of organisms; systematics.
Aristotle classified animals based on the presence of “red blood”, the animal’s environment, and the size and shape of the animal
Linnaeus classify organisms based on their traits, placed organisms into 2 specific categories (Kingdom, Phylum), used Latin to name living things
modern classification system kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
Robert Hooke looks at cork under microscope and calls them cells
Anton van Leeuwenhoek looked at pond water under a microscope
Matthias Schleiden a botanist, determined that all plants are made up of cells
Theodor Schwann a zoologist, determined that all animals are made up of cells
Rudolf Virchow concluded that cells can only develop from other cells
Cell Theory 1) All living things are composed of one or more cells 2) The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in every living thing 3) All cells come from other cells
bare necessities the four main macromolecules: proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids
proteins made up of sub-units called amino acids which have many functions 1) build living things 2) help spseed up chemical reactions 3) help cells communicate 4) carry oxygen throughout living things 5) Provide energy
lipids fats and oils 1) cushion cells 2) store energy 3) make up cell membrane
carbohydrates compounds made up of sugar 1) provide energy food- glucose- carbs- energy
simple carbohydrates made up of a few sugar molecules linked together, simplest sugar is called glucose (c6h12o6) glucose + glucose + glucose = sucrose
complex carbohydrates made up of a long chain of glucose molecules
nucleic acids made up of sub-units called nucleotides 1)carry a cell's genetic information 2)ceoxyribonucleic Acid and ribonucleic acid
two cell types eukaryotic- have a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles prokaryotic- have no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
nucleus (a & p) part of a eukaryotic cell that directs cell activity and contains genetic infomation stored in DNA
nucleolus (a & p) inside of the nucleus, makes ribosomes
DNA (a & p) deoxyribonucleic acid, carries genetic information
cytoplasm (a & p) the liquid part of a cell inside the cell membrane, contains salts and other molecules
cell membrane (a & p) a flexible covering that protects the inside of a cell from the environment outside a cell
ribosomes (a & p) free-float in the cytoplasm, make proteins
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (a & p) highway of the cell, transports things throughout the cell, has ribosomes attached, makes proteins
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (a & p) highway of the cell, transports things throughout the cell, no ribosomes attached, makes lipids
mitochondria (a & p) the powerhouse of the cell, where glucose is converted into energy
Golgi Apparatus (a & p) the UPS of the cell; packages, stores, and delivers materials throughout the cell
vacuoles empty spaces used for storage
lysosome (a & p) the wrecking companies of the cell; contains enzymes that break down wastes and worn-out cell parts
differences between plant and animal cells Plant cells Chloroplasts contain green pigment called chlorophyll, this is where photosynthesis takes place Cell wall, provides support and protection Large vacuole. store glucose and water Animal cells Centrioles, help in cell reproduction
passive transport movement across the cell membrane that does not require energy
active transport movement across the cell membrane that does require energy
diffusion (passive) movement of materials across the cell membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
osmosis (passive) movement of water molecules across the cell membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
example of diffusion pure water inside skin cells diffusing out, making the cells shrink, more pure water inside your skin cells than out
facilitated diffusion (passive) diffusion across the cell membrane with the help of membrane proteins through channel and carrier proteins... this is how gluscose works
example of active transport fish constantly have to pump salts out of their cells, takes energy
endocytosis the process during which a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with it's cell membrane
exocytosis the process when a cell's vesicles release their contents outside of the cell
cellular respiration the process which glucose is broken down into energy
equation for cellular respiration glucose + oxygen yields water + carbon dioxide + ATP
glycolysis the process when glucose is broken down into smaller molecules, occurs in mitochondria
ATP adenosine triphosphate, A-P-P----P, when third bond is broken, energy is released
photosynthesis a group of chemical reactions that convert light, energy, and carbon dioxide into the food-energy molecule glucose and give off energy
photosynthesis equation sunlight + oxygen + water yields carbon dioxide + glucose, glucose + ATP
fermentation cellular respiration that does not require oxygen
alcoholic fermentation glucose yields ATP + carbon dioxide + ethyl alcohol, happens in yeast cells
lactic acid fermentation glucose yields ATP +lactic acid, happens in muscle cells, the burn
stimulus a change in an organism's environment that causes a response
homeostasis an organism's ability to maintain steady internal conditions when outside conditions change
Created by: tait.thorne5