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A&P Final

Final Exam Stack

Anatomy The Science of the structure of the living organism
Gross-Anatomy the structure of organs and tissues that are visible to the naked eye.
Functions necessary for life (7) Movement, Responsiveness, Digestion, Metabolism, Excretion, Reproduction, Growth
What happens when an atom has more electrons than protons? The atom gains a negative charge
Valence electron shell atom's outermost shell
Ionic Bond When electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another
Covalent Bond The molecule when atoms share electrons
Hydrogen Bonds Weak bonds when hydrogen atoms bond to electron-hungry nitrogen
Synthesis Reaction (dehydration)When two or more atoms or molecule combine to create an even more complex molecule A+B=AB
Decomposition Reaction (hydrolysis)catabolic destructive processes molecule degrading like in digestion AB= A+B
Exchange Reaction Synthesis and Decomposition mix where molecules are switch between atoms and both degraded and made
Buffer Maintains pH stability by taking up excess hydrogen or hydroxide ions
Enzymes Catalyst in chemical reactions that are charged amino acids. They are specific and are NOT consumed in reaction.
Where is DNA always found? DNA is restricted to the nuclei of cells
Osmosis Cellular transport of H2O out of a cell
Aprocine glands found in the armpit and groin area that secretes a milky substance that can be used as a source of nutrients
What is the charge of an atom with more protons than electrons? Positive
Carbohydrates A 6 ringed glucose molecule structure obtained from diet or storage
Monosaccharide one glucose molecule known as a simple sugar
Disaccharide two simple sugars joined by dehydration
Polysaccharide A long chain of sugars stored as gylcogen
Sodium-potassium pump? Uses ATP to move sodium and potassium against concentration gradient
Receptor-mediated endocytosis main cellular mechanism for taking up specific target molecules by plasma cell receptors in the cell membrane binding with certain substances
Vesicular Transport Moves substances into or out of cells without them actually crossing the cell membrane
Endocytosis ATP requiring process that take up or engulf extracellular substances by enclosing them in a small membranous vesicle
Exocytosis When transmembrane proteins on vesicles recognize certain certain plasma proteins and bind with them
Phagocytosis The ingestion of SOLID PARTICLES by cells
Pinocytosis the engulfing of EXTRACELLULAR FLUID by cells.
Mitosis the division of the cell nucleus; often followed by division of the cytoplasm of a cell.
Interphase Stage 1 of Mitosis- When DNA replication begins
Metaphase Stage 2 of Mitosis- When chromosomes line up at the center of the spindle
Anaphase Stage 3 of Mitosis- When chromatids split and start to move slowly apart
Telophase Stage 4 of Mitosis- At opposite sides of the cell chromosomes uncoil and become threadlike chromatin again
Cytokinesis Stage 5 of Mitosis- division of cytoplasm that occurs after the cell nucleus has divided.
Transcription Transfer of DNA information into mRNA
Translation mRNA is translated into amino acid sequence (proien)
Keratin tough protein found in hair, nails, and the epidermis of skin
Corneum dead cells represented by flat membranous sacs with karatine
What is the main component of the hypodermis (brain part) Fat
Melanin A pigment contributing to skin color and protects DNA from UV damage
How does loose connective tissue relate to ostification? Loose connective tissue provides a model for ostification
Ossification the process of bone formation
Osteocytes mature bone cells that maintain the matrix
Osteoblasts bone-forming cells
Osteoclasts Bone-destroying cells
When do leg bones stop growing when the epiphysial plate is ossified
Where is spongy bone found in the middle of flat bones
Saddle-joint A multitaxial synovial joint
Anaerobic Aerobic respiration that makes the most ATP
What forms cross bridges Ca+ Calcium
Does the A band change in length during sarcomere contraction and what enters during contraction? No, Na+ (sodium) does
Complete tetanus tetanus produces strong muscle contractions so this is when the muscle is stimulated to rapidly there is no evidence of relaxation
Meningitis A serious threat to the brain because bacteria may spread into the nervous tissue of the CNS
Astrocytes half of the neural tissue that clings to neurons to anchor them to blood capillaries
Basal Nuclei Regulates voluntary motor activities
R.A.S. Reticular Activating System Part of the brain is in charge of the body's awake/sleep cycle(consciousness)
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) a system of nerves that connects the outlying parts of the body with the central nervous system.
Somatic nervous system Voluntary nervous system.
What are the three pathways for regenerating ATP for working muscles Direct Phosphorylation (mitochondria), Anaerobic pathway(no oxygen;cytoplasm), and Aerobic pathway (needs oxygen;happens in the glucose and produces the most ATP)
What does the CNS do? Integration
Where is neuroglia cells found in the PSN Satellite and Schwann cells
Schwann-Cells Mylin sheets in the PNS
Satellite-Cells protective cushioning cells
Graded-Potential a local change in membrane potential/strength of the stimulus
Gray Matter Unmyelinated nerve fibers and nerve cell bodies
Anti-Diuretic prohibits urine production
Goiters Caused by iodine deficiency because of an enlarged thyroid
Calcitonin Released by the thyroid gland in response to high blood calcium levels to store the excess calcium in bones
Malaria Sickle cell anemia protect an individual against
Erythrocyte red blood cell (hemocytoblasts)
Neutrophils phagocyte against infections (hemocytoblasts)
Esinophil Parasites and Allergy attacks (hemocytoblasts)
Basophil Blood thinner (hemocytoblasts)
Lymphocytes B(bone)&T(thymus) lymphocytes for general attack (hemocytoblasts)
Monocytes Clean up cells fighting against chronic infections-largest white blood cell(hemocytoblasts)
Lub-Dup Lub=closing of the AV valves Dub=semilunar valves close
Where do B lymphocytes mature Bone Marrow
Inflammation Defense inflammation, redness, heat
Do blood vessels dilate and leak during inflammation blood vessels do not dilate and leak
Are Cytotoxic killer cells activated during inflammation No
What are made in Innate Defenses B&T Cells
What blood type(s) will coagulate when mixed with B blood and why? A and O will coagulate because of their 'protective' antibodies
What are the three layers of the heart (___cardium) Pericardium, Myocardium, Endocardium (epithilial)
Which layer is the innermost layer of the heart The Endocardium (Epithilial)
Which structure (Artery, Vein or Capillary) has a tunica media? They call have a Tunica Media as their innermost layer, but for a capillary this is its only layer
What pumps lymph fluid Skeletal Muscle Contractions pump lymph fluid is pumped through lymph vessels by
What happens to Helper T cells after their antigen has been removed? They can no longer suppress an immune response
What are the innate (nonspecific) defense mechanisms? Membrane barrier, Chemicals, Natural Killer cells, Inflammatory response, Phagocytes, and interferon
Phagocytes They remove antigens and pathogens
What does the submucosa of the GI tack contain? Blood vessels, nerve endings, and lymphatics
What are the layers of the GI track? Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularous, Serosa
Brush Boarder enzymes Complete breakdown of proteins and carbohydrates in the small intestine
What is the function of bile? To break down fat
Is protein a component of urine? No, but uric acids, sodium, and Urea are
Saliva includes what? Salvary amalayse, mucus and serous secretions, and Lingual Lipase
What does Corpus Luteum produce when degenerated? Progesterone
Pepsin an enzyme capable of digesting proteins in an acid pH.
What is the purpose of goblet cells in the large intestine? To produce mucus
Glomeruler filration Water and small solutes forced through the capillary walls and pores of the GLOMERAROUS TO THE RENAL TUBULE
Tubular reabsorption Water, glucose, and amino acids OUT OF TUBULE INTO BLOOD
Tubular secretion drugs removed FROM BLOOD INTO TUBE
Atom the smallest part of an element
Ion an atom with a positive or negative electric charge.
Cell Theory and its four concepts 1. Cell is basic unit of living organisms 2. Activity of organism depends on activity of cell 3.Biochemical activity determined by subcellular structures 4. Life has a cellular basis
Synovial Joint freely movable joint exhibiting a joint cavity enclosed by fibrous capsule lined with synovial membrane.
Isotonic Having a uniform tension
Isometric Of the same length.
Hypothalmus the region of the diencephalon forming the floor of the third ventricle of the brain.
Pancreas Produces both endocrine and exocrine secretions.
Urine filtrate containing waste and excess ions excreted by the kidneys.
Filtrate solvent and dissolved substances through a membrane or filter.
Spermatogenesis Myosis specific for the formation of sperm
Oogenesis Process of ova formation
FSH stimulates spermatogenic cells to produce sperm
LH Stimulates the release of testosterone
Progesterone Helps prepare breast tissue for lactication
Estrogen Growth and maturation in reproductive organs, promotes breast maturation and the menstrual cycle
Direct Phosphorylation Processed in the mitochondria
Anaerobic pathway no oxygen;cytoplasm
Aerobic pathway needs oxygen;happens in the glucose and produces the most ATP