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Church History

Church History Midterm Study Guide Terms

Infallible The Pope is incapable of error in matter of faith and morals
Hellenization Greek culture spreading throughout the known world/ spread Greek language/ natural Law & immortal soul
Alexander the Great Macedonian king who dreamed of a large united empire
Stoicism Extreme morality system/ belief that virtue and reason are the highest good/ practice that rejects showing emotion
Punic Wars Series of wars that consisted of Rome gaining Carthage and defeating Hannibal
Julius Caesar Named himself dictator for life
Marcus Antonius (Antony) Married Cleopatra and killed himself
Octavian Consul to bring lasting peace to the Roman Empire
Marcus Lepidus Member of the triumvirate
Triumvirate Marcus Lepidus, Marcus Antonius, and Octavian
Pax Romana 200 years of lasting peace in Rome
Sanctifying Grace Given to us every time we receive the sacraments/ necessary for eternal life/ makes us partakers in God's Divine Life
Actual Grace Specifically given by God to help us at a particular moment/ given to us every time someone prays for us/ helps us to do good things but is not permanent
Hypostatic Union Union of divine and human nature in one
Salvation History God's plan to save man from the consequences of son for all time
Justification Being made right with God
Pascal Mystery Jesus' life, death and resurrection
Kenosis Greek for self-emptying/ refers to Christ's total self-sacrifice
Fullness of the truth Instituted by Christ, authority of the Pope and priests, sacraments, saints & Mary (Church has everything Christ instituted)
Sacraments Baptism, Reconciliation, Eucharist, Confirmation, Holy Orders, Matrimony, Anointing of the Sick
Saints Known to be in heaven through canonization/ interceding for us
Mary Fulfillment of Eve/ Eve brought death into the world, Mary brought life into the world
Incarnation Latin: to become flesh/ God became fully man, fully divine (hypostatic union)
John 1:1 Jesus is the word by which the world was created/ fitting that salvation is entrusted to the Creator
4 Reasons God became Man Life (we could partake in His divine life through S and A grace), Love ( showed us infinite depths of God's love), Reconciliation (made expiation for our sins), Imitation (gave us an example to follow through prayer, obedience, humility and charity)
4 ways Jesus showed us how it imitate Him Charity, obedience, humility, prayer
How is the Mass and sacrifice on the Cross the same? Priest & victim are the same, faithful are present, same sacrifice of Jesus to Himself to the the Father, graces are the same
How are the sacrifices of the Cross and the Mass different? Cross is historical event, Mass includes the whole Church, Mass-unbloody sacrifice, Cross- bloody sacrifice, many Masses but only one sacrifice
Mother of God Divine maternity, Jesus receives human nature from Mary
Ever-Virgin Pure in every sense, sinless, virgin throughout her life
Immaculate Conception Mary was conceived without original sin, from conception on ➡️ sinless
Assumed into heaven She didn't die, was carried body and soul into heaven
Co-Redemptorix Has unique role in salvation, cooperates in the redemptive sacrifice of her Son
Medatrix Bearer of Christ, Intercedes, dispenses graces from her Son, intercessor
Advocate Prays for people of God
Baptism of Our Lord Indicates acceptance of mission/ marks beginning of public ministry/ manifestation of Trinity
Wedding at Cana Marks beginning of Redemptive mission/ prefigures Christ's Passions and Death/ indicates importance of Mary
Temptation in the Desert Satan tried to tempt Christ to resist His Passion and Death/ counteracts disobedience of Adam
Transfiguration Jesus reveals His divinity/ Moses-->Law & Elijah-->Prophets
The Last Supper First Mass on Holy Thursday
Agony in the Garden Jesus experienced true mental suffering/ hematohidrosis
Body of Christ 2 dimensions: horizontal (btw human beings) & vertical (btw God and human being)
Universal Sacrament of Salvation Jesus gives us salvation through the Church
Bride of Christ Christ is the giver of life, Church nurtures & bears it to the world/ Christ is necessary for the Church/Christ completes the Church/ Christ is the head of the Church
Mission of the Holy Spirit Church carries out mission through time/ receive H.S. through sacraments/ H.S. gives virtues and gifts
Gifts of H.S. Wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety, fear of the Lord
Fruits of the H.S. Love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self control
Particular Judgment When each soul is judged by God, right after death
Parousia The final judgment, when God judges all of the human race
Beatific Vision The ability to see God face to face
Council of Jerusalem Old Law vs. New Law- can Gentiles be saved without following Old Law? Should they be circumcised?
St. Bartholomew Was martyred by being flayed alive
St. Paul Responsible for the arrest & martyrdom of many Christians before conversion/ Saul --> Paul
St. Peter Crucified by Nero in 64 AD
Judas Iscariot Betrayed Jesus for financial gain
St. Jude Patron of lost causes
St. Matthew Called Levi meaning gift of God
St. John The Beloved Disciple
St. Matthias Replaced Judas Iscariot
St. Andrew Brother of St. Peter
St. James (the greater) First of the 12 to be martyred
St. Thomas Doubted Jesus' Resurrection
St. James (the less) Head of the Church in Jerusalem and presided in the Council of Jerusalem
St. Philip Brought Nathaniel (Bartholomew) to Christ
Cornelius Devout Gentile who came to Christ
Ananias Responsible for laying hand son Saul and baptizing him
St. Simon Shares a feast day and was martyred with St. Jude
Objective Redemption The work accomplished by Christ for all people by means of His Passion, Death and Resurrection
Subjective Redemption Redemption won by Christ but must be applied to each person individually
Baptism (Early Christian Practice) Catechumens met over a 2 or 3 year period/ baptizing infants became more common during the 3rd Cent./ Baptism by blood
Agape Means love in Greek/ religious meal that was related to the Eucharist and preceded the Eucharist/ Did not last long because of abuses
Eucharist Means thanksgiving/ celebrant gave thanks in his own words before the consecration
Catacombs Early Christina burial places, shrines and places of worship
Holy Days Wednesday and Friday/ Sunday was also a holy day for pagans so it was safer for Christian worship during persecution
Cross (Symbols) Christian Faith
Fish (Symbols) Recalls Multiplication of Loaves and Fishes/ Greek fish same as Greek phrase "Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior"
Anchor (Symbols) Safety, hope/ depiction of Cross (recognized by Christians but not by non-believers)
Papacy (Early Church) Supreme authority in all Church matters/ Vicar of Christ
Episcopacy Successors of Apostles/ administer of sacraments
Presbyters Priests/ church elders/ offer sacrifice of the Mass/ subordinate to Bishop
The Scriptures No canon (Early Church)/ texts of Bible determined by authority under the H.S./ Scripture part of broader tradition
Sola Scriptura Scripture alone
Sola Fidei Faith alone
Sexual Ethics, Abortion, Contraception Rejected abortion, infanticide, & contraception prevalent in society/ it rejected dignity of human person & violated 5th commandment
"The Way" Refers to Christian living/ requires integrity and sacrifice
Martyr Greek= witness/ bears with to Christ/ showed love, joy & faith amidst suffering/ achieved sanctity & entrance to heaven
Kiss of Peace Originates with martyrs/ bless each other wit joy & peace
Caligula A crazy emperor/ thought/acted as though his horse was a person
Nero Crazy emperor/ blamed Christians for "Great Fire" 64 AD
Nero's Circus An amphitheater built by Nero
Domition Completed the Colosseum in 72 AD/ its still around today
St. Stephen First Christian martyr/ Deacon/ stoned under St. Paul
St.s Felicity & Perpetua Friends/ Felicity the slave of Perpetua/ Felicity 8 months pregnant/ stayed in prison until baby was born/ sentenced to death in amphitheater by wild beasts/ beheaded
St. Lucy Committed to celibacy/ wouldn't sacrifice to Diocletian/ tried to take away her virginity/ tortured/ eyes gouged out
St. Cecilia Took vow of celibacy with husband/ converted 100s of people/ put in fire but not burned/ beheaded/ remained alive for 3 days/ preached and sang
Martyrdom Today More Christian martyrs in 20th century alone/ 270 martyrs every day/ 200 million Christians over 60 nations face persecution every day (60% children)
Apostolic Father Leaders of the faith taught by the Apostles
Apologist Greek= defense/ Author of work that defends the faith against heresies
Didache Doctrine containing Christian morals, doctrine, customs and traditions/ Author unknown/ 1st Century/ "Doctrine of the 12 Apostles"/ written amidst Church persecution to ensure regulation of belief system
St. Hippolytus Apologist/wrote Eucharistic prayer/ anti-pope of Novationists (schism= could never be admitted or forgiven back into the faith/ united with Pope St. Pontian before martyrdom
Tertullian Apologist/ Father of Latin Theology/ said Christians were an asset to Rime/ involved in Montansism (heresy=refuse forgiveness of certain sins)
St. Polycarp Apostolic Father/ died under Antonius Pilas/ Bishop of Smyrna/ friend of St. Ignatius/ refused to offer incense/ burned & not harmed so killed by sword
St. Justin Martyr Apologist/ died under Marcus Aurelius/ addressed letters to Emperor & Senate/ beheaded
St. Ignatius of Antioch Apostolic Father/ taught by John/ Bishop of Antioch/ first to use "Catholic Church"
5 Good Emperors Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pilas, Marcus Aurilias
Trajan's Rescript Profession of Christianity is a crime/ Christians can only be killed of they publicly announce their faith, if they renounced it & offered sacrifice they could live
Hadrian's Rescript Christians could not be mobbed, only punished for violations of the aw, not for profession of belief
Libellactiti Christians who signed a certificate of sacrifice
Sacrificanti Christians who offered sacrifices
Thurificanti Christians who burned incense to the emperor
Lapsi Christians who formally renounced the faith by offering sacrifices to pagan gods
Decius 1st to inaugurate an empire wide persecution of Christians
Edict of Decius Exterminated of Christians/ if suspicious of being a Christian, must sacrifice to gods to prove otherwise
Valerian Forbid Christians to meet in public places/ no Mass in catacombs/ bishops, priests and deacons killed/ Christians killed or sold into slavery
Diocletian Desired to unify empire
Surge of Persecution 64 AD- 303 AD
The Great Persecution 303 AD- 313 AD
The Great Persecution (4 Edicts) 1)Destruction of Churches, books burned, no meeting at all 2) imprisoned clergy 3) demand pagan sacrifice from clergy 4) demanded sacrifice from every Christian
Origin Prolific writer, theologian, & biblical exegete/ head of 1st school in Alexandria/ died from torture under Decius/ not a saint b/c of belief that everyone goes to heaven
Exegete a writer of an exegesis-> a long, long commentary of a passage in the Bible
St. Lawrence Saw Pope St. Sixtus II beheaded/ deacon/ ordered to get treasure of the Church/ brought the poor/ grilled alive
Sacred Tradition Passing down orally from the Apostles
Created by: annazambo