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Microbiology

Microbiology - National Boards Part 1

Front of CardBack of Card
inclusion bodies bodies present in the nucleus of cytoplasm of certain cells in infection by filtrable viruses
Aschoff Rheumatic fever (extensive = McCallums Patch)
Babes Ernst granules Metachomatic granules seen in diptheria
Councilman cells viral hep
epithelioid Tb
guarneri bodies small pox (variola)
Koplik spots Measles (rubeola)
Langerhans TB
Lewy bodies Parkinson's (paralysis agitans)
Mallory bodies Hepatitis (alcoholics)
Negri bodies Rabies (hydrophobia)
Reed Sternberg Hodgkin's
Active immunity makes own antibodies
Active immunity long term immunity
Natural Active Immunity immunity from being exposed to the disease
Artificial Active Immunity injection of attenuated organism
Passive immunity receives antibodies from someone/something else
Natural Passive immunity immunity from mother to fetus in utero
natural passive immunity immunity from breast feeding
passive Artificial immunity injection of gamma globulin or purified antiserum from animals
Antitoxin (artificial passive) antibody against a toxin
antitoxin (artificial passive) purified antiserum from animals who have been given a toxoid
toxoid modified inactivated bacterial exotoxin that has lost its toxicity
exotoxin toxin outside the cell from cell waste products
endotoxin toxin from lipopolysaccharide layer of cell
enterotoxin toxin that affects the intestine
neurotoxin toxin that affects the nervous system
opsonin stimulates phagocytosis
hapten partial antigen
Type 1 Hypersensitivity Anaphylactic
type 2 hypersensitivity cytotoxic
type 3 hypersensitivity immune complex mediated
type IV delayed hypersensitivity
rapidly developing hypersensitivity type 1 (anaphylactic)
bee sting, asthma attack type 1 (anaphylactic)
transfusion reaction type 2 (cytotoxic)
Goodpasteur's syndrome = coomb's anemia (lungs and kidney) type 2 (cytotoxic)
glmerulonephritis, RA, Lupus type 3 (immune complex mediated)
Arthus reaction = local reaction type 3 (immune complex mediated)
serum sickness = systemic type 3 (immune complex mediated)
TB, transplants, graft rejection, contact dermatitis type 4 (delayed hypersensitivity)
autotroph oxidizes inorganic matter for energy
heterotroph requires organic matter for energy
saprophyte nutrition from dead decaying matter for energy
parasite feeds on living matter for energy
pathogens parasites that cause disease
facultative can function in presence or absence of O2
fermentation anaerobic decomposition of CHO to alcohol odors
symbiosis 2 populations living together - one or both benefit
mutualism 2 populations living together - both benefit
synergism 2 populations living together - both benefit & accomplish what neither can do alone
commensalism 2 populations living together - one benefits, the other is unaffected
ASO titre Anitstreptolysin O titre. Test for strep antibodies. Rheumatic fever
Bile solubility Pneumococci vs Alpha hemolytic strep viridans
Bordet Gengou Phenomenon aka Complement Fixation
Catalase staph vs strep
coagulase staph aureus vs other stap
complement fixation hemolysis means presence of complement
coliform used to check for e. coli in water purification
coombs tests antigens on RBCs
coombs erythroblastosis fetalis - Rh factor
Dick susceptibility to scarlet fever
Schultz carlton reaction antitoxin reaction to scarlet fever
Schick immunity to diptheria
Giemsa stain for protozoa
phosphatase to determine if milk pasteurization was adequate. Phosphatase is destroyed if pasteurization was properly accomplished.
Paul Bunnel test for mononucleosis
quellung reaction strep pneumoniae
Weil Felix for rickettsia. typhus
Widal typhoid fever test
syphilis tests kline kahn wasserman TPI VDRL Darkfield
tuberculosis tests mantoux, tine, acid fast=ziehl nielson stain, BCG=TB vaccine (Bacillus calmette guerin)
mononucleosis tests paul bunnell, monospot, hereophile, antibody, downey cell
holding pasteurization method 145 degrees for 30 seconds
flash pasteurization method 161 degrees for 15 seconds
flash pasteurization method AKA High Temp Short Time
most common pasteurization method flash AKA HTST
ultrahigh pasteurization method 191 degrees for 2-5 seconds
blue pus indicates pseudomones aeruginosa -open burn infection, fluorescence
yellow pus indicates staph aureus infection
red pus indicates serratia marcescens infection
sulfa drugs for gram negative, competes w/PABA
streptomycin for gram negative, inhibits protein synthesis
penicillin for gram negative, inhibits cell wall synthesis
tetracycline for gram negative and positive, inhibits protein synthesis
tetracycline side effect turns teeth gray or yellow brown
Burnet/metchinkoff developed humoral theory of immune response
Erlich magic bullet=sulfa drugs; discovered penicillin
Flemming discovered penicillin
Iwanowski discovered virus
Jenner developed small pox vaccine
Koch proved bacteria causes disease, Koch's postulates
Lancefield, Rebecca classified streptococcus
Leewenhoek developed first microscope, saw microorganisms
Lister antisepsis
Pateaur pasteurization of wine then milk, germ theory
Reed, Walter yellow fever
Sabin live polio vaccine given orally (Sabin your life)
Salk dead polio vacine given by injection before Sabin
Semmelweiss persecuted for idea of washing hands after autopsy and childbirth, puerperal fever
Semmelweiss responsible for significantly reducing the maternal mortality rate
Colony Variation R = rough, S = smooth, M = mucoid capsule forming (related to virulence), H = spreading, O = compact, D = dwarf
Gram stain 1. stain w/ crystal violet 2. use iodine as a mordant (fixer) 3. wash w/ acetone or ethanol 4. use saffarin (counter stain)
washing gram stain with alcohol does removes blue from thin walled bacteria
gram + color blue
gram - color red
gram + have darker stain gram + have a thicker cell wall
Thayer Martin stain chocolate agar (heated blood agar)
Mannitol salt stain staphylococcus
Sabourand stain Fungi/mycosis
Acid fast stain Mycobacterium
Glemsa stain protozoans/parasites
MacConkey Agar differentiates e. coli from salmonella via lactose fermentation
salmonella and e. coli both test gram -
CDC center for disease control. compiles stats on morbidity, keeps track of epidemics, home in atlanta, ga
FDA responsible for safety in health products, restricts product misrepresentation in health promotion and advertising
HHS Department of Health and Human Services, controls FDA, CDC, and USPHS (US public health service)
HSA Health Services administration, US health care agency, provides healthcare to migratory and rural underserved populations, OSHA is a part of this
NIH National Institute of Health, responsible for financing, funding and research of various diseases, Bethesda, MD
OSHA occupation Safety and Health Administration, makes reules concerning occupational toxicity levels of hazardous materials, responsible to HSA.
USDA US Dept. of Agriculture, responsible for milk and milk products
Epidemic repidly affects many persons in a certain area within a few days or weeks
endemic a small number of cases in a specific location present all of the time
pandemic causes more than the expected number of cases of a disease on a worldwide basis
prevalence the number of people with disease that occurs at a certain time in a designated area
incidence frequency of occurence over a period of time, the number of new cases of a disease
leading cause of death in infants respiratory infection
#2 cause of death in infants poison (aspirin is main cause)
leading cause of death from 1-35 accidents
leading cause of death in adults heart disease
#2 cause of death in adults cancer
#2 cause of death in adults accidents
water purification process 1. filtration 2. flocculation 3. sedimentation 4. sludge digestion 5. sand filtration 6. aeration 7. chorination 8. possible fluorination
filtration screens for large materials
flocculation chemical coagulation & addition of precipitates such as aluminum
sludge digestion addition of anaerobic bacteria
sand filtration removes anaerobic bacteria
aeration adds oxygen to water to improve color and taste and kills remaining anaerobic bacteria
chlorination kills all bacteria
viral diseases with skin reactions vaccinia, varicella, variola, rubeola, rubella, herpes simplex, herpes zoster
vaccinia cow pox
varicella chicken pox, herpes zoster AKA shingles, giant multinucleated cells
variola small pox, guarneri bodies
rubeola regular measles, red measles, kiplik spots on buccal mucosa
rubella german measles (birth defects) most susceptible in 1st trimester
herpes simplex fever blister (cold sores) genital herpes
herpes zoster shingles from DRG - follows nerve
viral diseases with respiratory reactions psittiacosis, rhinovirus, mono, mumps, influenza, adenovirus
psittacosis parrot fever (lower respiratory tract)
rhinovirus common cold
mono epstein barr virus, paul bunnell, monospot, heretophile antibody, downey cell
mumps parotitis, secondary orchitis, sidomegalic paramyxoid virus
influenza flu, pneumonia
adenovirus causes conjunctivitis, pharyngitis
viral diseases with enteric reactions coxsackle, echovirus, polio
coxsackle childhood dysentery, hand, foot & mouth disease
echovirus skin rash, heart disease
polio bulbar type produces respiratory paralysis & is the major cause of death from polio, carried by water; afects anterior horn
rabies RNA virus, rhabdo birus, negri bodies int he brain, hydrophobic
hepatitis A oral/fecal trasmission
hepatitis B sexual transmission or taking blood in the lab
heptatisis C from transfusions (non A non B)
AIDS retro virus: reverse transcriptase makes DNA from RNA, attacks T helper cells, patients suscpetible to: pneumocystic carinii, nocardia asteroides, guardia lamblia, kaposi sarcoma
abroviruses (arthropod borne viruses) western equine encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis, st. louis equine encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue fever
western equine encephalitis mostquito carrier
eastern equine encephalitis mosquito carrier
st. louis equine encephalitis mosquito carrier
yellow fever aedes agypti, walter reed, viscerotropic virus
dengue fever mostquito carrier, 1st symptoms = arthralgia
Created by: melaniecarr23 on 2008-08-07



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