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science unit 1 exam

test on unit one material

what are properties of high pressure systems? how does air move in this system? dry with clear skies, and the air moves down and out (horizontally).
what are properties of low pressure systems? how does air move in this system? warm and humid (wet), and the air moves upward and inward (vertically).
how do winds move? high to low pressure
what is a monsoon and what causes it? a seasonal wind; cyclone (low pressure system).
what is a sea breeze? wind that blows inland from large bodies of water, usually cool.
describe air pressure at different altitudes in the atmosphere. the higher the altitude, the less dense the air is, so there is less air pressure.
how do winds and oceans transfer heat? winds move warmer air to colder spots. ocean currents move warm water (from the equator) to colder areas (towards the poles).
what are the effects of heat on the density of fluids? colder fluids are denser, and warmer fluids are less dense.
how do ocean currents move? compare surface to deep-ocean. surface are moved by the wind, deep-ocean currents are moved by water temperature and density. cold water sinks, spreads out; warm water rises, cools, sinks.
describe heat distribution at the earth's surface-amount of insolation at the poles, mid latitudes, and equator. at the equator, it is the most direct, least direct at the poles, in between at mid-latitudes.
describe stages of water cycle water is in the ocean; sun heats water, water evaporates. transpiration from plants and soil. water vapor is in the atmosphere, cools, condenses into clouds. cools more into precipitation and falls to surface. goes into bodies of water & plants/soil.
what is the coriolis effect? what causes it and what does it affect? the natural force that causes winds to curve to the right in the north, left in south. rotation of the earth, affects global wind direction and surface currents.
what are two earth movements? what do they cause? rotation causes days and nights. revolution (or orbit) causes years and seasons.
what are the two the two reasons for the seasons? earths orbit around the sun and earths tilt.
climate factors affecting location on a map. temp: altitude(elevation), latitude, closeness to water, ocean currents, mountain ranges. Precip.: latitude, center of large landmass, nearness to water, mountains, prevailing winds (determines windward and leeward sides)
three types of heat transfer? conduction: transfer through contact convection: transfer by water movement radiation: transfer by electromagnetic waves
how does heat transfer keep the earth warm at night? during the day, the ground absorbs heat from the sun. at night, the land is cooled and the heat is released into the atmosphere where convection currents cool and bring it back to the surface and etc.
what are the effects of clouds on heat energy in the atmosphere? clouds either reflect or absorb heat energy from the sun.
define albedo and give an example amount of sunlight reflected on a surface to amount absorbed ex: clouds absorb less than reflected
define climate the year after year conditions (weather and temperature) of an area over a long period of time
describe the effect of latitude on climate the higher the latitude, the less direct sunlight. the lower the latitude, the more direct sunlight.
Explain how the angle of insolation (solar radiation) affects the temp in an area lower the angle, the less direct sunlight, resulting in less heat and lower temps. the higher the angle, vice versa
list all geographic features that affect climate and describe the effects of each in an area latitude, altitude, proximity to mountain ranges, proximity to large bodies of water, ocean currents, proximity to center of large landmasses, prevailing winds and other winds
What fuels the water cycle process? sun
how does water move from one stage of the water cycle to the next? water evaporates by sun, condenses in atmosphere when cold, forms into clouds, when clouds are heavy enough, they precipitate, and the water returns to earth's surface
what are the major sources of water? oceans, lakes, streams, plants, rivers, soil, groundwater
what is a land breeze? wind that blows out to sea, usually warm.