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Chapter 2 Science

The cell in action

Diffusion the movement of particles from regions of higher concentration to regions fo lower concentration
Osmosis the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane
Passive Tranport the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
Active Transport the movement of substances across the cell membrane that requires the cell to use energy
Endocytosis the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring into the cell
Exocytosis process in which a cell releases a particle in a vesicle that then moves to the cell surface and fuses with the cell membrane
Photosynthesis the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to make food
Cellular Respiration the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food
Fermentation the breakdown of food without the use of oxygen
Cell Cycle the cell cycle of a cell
Chromosomes in a eukaryote cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of the DNA and protein; in a prokaryote, the main ring of the DNA
Homologous Chromosomes chromosomes that have the same sequence of the genes and the same structure
Mitosis in eukaryote cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which had the same number of chromosomes
Cytokinesis In cells that lack a cell wall, the cell pinches in two. In cells that have a cell wall, the cell plate forms between the two new cells.
Interphase 1st step: Before mitosis begins, chromosomes are copied. Each chromosomes is then two chromatids.
Prophase Mitosis Phase 1: The nuclear membrane dissolves. Chromosomes condense into rodlike structures.
Metaphase Mitosis Phase 2: The chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell. Homologous chromosomes pair up.
Anaphase Mitosis Phase 3: The chromatids separate and move to opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase Mitosis Phase 4: A nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes, and the chromosomes unwind. Mitosis is complete.
Created by: voitmegan