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Ch. 7-8 Definitions

Ch. 7-8 Notes

Atom is the smallest piece of an element that still represents that element
Electron is a particle with one negative charge
Nucleus most of an atom's mass and positive charge is concentrated in a small area in the center of the atom
Proton is an atomic particle that has one positive charge
Neutron is a neutral particle that exists in the nucleus of an atom.
Electron Cloud is an area around an atomic nucleus where an electron is most likely to be located
Atomic Number number of protons in an atom of an element
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. Most elements have several isotopes
Mass Number is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Average Atomic Mass is the average mass of the element's isotopes, weighted according to the abundance of each isotope
Ion is an atom that is no longer neutral because it has gained or lost electrons
Metals often shiny, good conductors of electricity and thermal energy: easily pulled into wires and hammered into sheets
Metalloids have properties in common with both metals and nonmetals often used as semiconductors in electronic devices
Nonmetals poor conductors of thermal energy and electricity, most are gases at room temperature: solid forms tends to be brittle
Chemical Bonds is a force that holds two or more atoms together
Valence Electrons is an outermost electron of an atom that participates in chemical bonding. These outermost electrons are the only electrons involved in chemical bonding
Electron Dot Diagram a model that represents valence electrons in an atom as dots around the element's chemical symbol
Covalent Bond is a chemical bond formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons. The atoms then form a stable covalent compound.
Molecule is a group of atoms held together by covalent bonding that acts as an independent unit
Chemical Formula is a group of chemical symbols and numbers that represent the elements and the number of atoms of each element that make up a compound
Ionic Bond the attraction between positively and negatively charged ions in an ionic compound
Metallic Bond is a bond formed when many metal atom share their pooled valence electrons
Created by: CompelledControl