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Cell Sructue

cell The basic unit of structure and function in living things.
microscope An instrument that makes small objects look larger.
cell theory A widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things.
organelle A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell.
cell wall A rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.
cell membrane Acell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.
nucleus A cell structure that contains nucleic acids, the chemical instructions that direct all the cell's activities.
cytoplasm The region between the cell membrane and the nucleus; in organisms without a nucleus, the region located inside the cell membrane.
mitochondria Rod-shaped cell structures that convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry its functions.
endoplasmic reticulum A cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.
ribosome A small grain-like structure in the cytoplasm of a cell where proteins are made.
Golgi body A structure in a cell that receives proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them, and distributes them to other parts of the cell.
chloroplast A structure in the cells of plants and som other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food.
vacuole A sac inside a cell that acts as a storage area.
lysosome A small, round cell structure containing chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones.
element Any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
compound Two or more elements that are chemically combined.
carbohydrate Energy-rich organic compound,such as a sugar or starch, that is made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
protein Large organic molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.
amino acid A small molecule that is linked chemically to other amino acids to form proteins.
enzyme A type of protein that speeds up a chemial reaction in a living thing.
lipid Energy-rich organic compound, such as a fat, oil, or wax, that is made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
nucleic acid Very large organic molecule made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phophorus, that contains the instructions cells need to carry out all the functions of life.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.
RNA Ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins.
selectively permeable A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot.
diffusion The process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
osmosis The diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane.
passive transport The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy.
active transport The movement of materials through a cell membrane using cellular energy.
Created by: elliedo