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MCB 32

Full Class

Epithelial Tissue Continuous layer of cells separating fluids and vessels
Exocrine Glands Epithelial glands which secrete product to external enviroment
Endocrine Glands Epithelial glands which secrete hormones into the blood stream
Apical and Basolateral Two distinct sides of the cell (Apical faces lumen; basolateral faces outside)
Desmosomes Hold cells together under stress
Catabolic Reaction Breaking down of larger molecules into smaller ones
Anabolic Reaction Production of larger molecules
Allosteric Regulation Activation/inhibition of enzyme by changing its shape
Primary Transport Uses ATP to transport substances
Secondary Transport Couples flow of one substance down its concentration gradient to another going up its gradient
Paracrine Diffuses locally and acts on a neighboring cell
Metabotropic receptors Receptors which function through a second messenger
Posterior Pituitary Extension of neural tissue; produces vasopressin and oxytocin
Anterior Pituitary Endocrine gland; prolactin and other hormones (ACTH)
Vasopressin (ADH) regulates water balance in the body
Oxytocin Milk, contractions, bonding (pregnancy stuff)
Tropic Hormones Regulates release of other hormones
Cortisol Pathway CRH (hypothalamus) stimulates anterior pituitary to produce ACTH; stimulates adrenal cortex to produce cortisol (steroid); which inhibits past pathways
Addison's Disease Hypoglycemia caused by hyposecretion of cortisol
Cushing's Syndrome Hyperglycemia and fatigue caused by hypersecretion of cortisol
Insulin Released by beta cells in the pancreas; increases reuptake of glucose into cells
Glucagon Released by alpha cells in the pancreas; stimulates breakdown of glycogen, lipids, and amino acids to produce glucose
Temporal Summation Two postsynaptic graded potentials from one synapse in rapid succession can summate
Spatial Summation Two postsynaptic graded potentials from nearby synapses around the same time can summate
Glutamate Main excitatory neurotransmitter in CNS
GABA Most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in CNS
Afferent Neurons Send signals towards the CNS
Efferent Neurons Send signals away from CNS
Interneurons Process signals in CNS
White Matter Clusters of myelinated axons in spinal cord
Grey Matter Cell bodies and dendrites
Ganglion Collection of cell bodies in periphery (i.e. in spinal cord)
Nucleus A ganglion in the CNS
Meninges Connective tissue membranes between outer bones and CNS
Astrocytes Glia cells involved in the blood-brain barrier
Brainstem Connects to spinal cord: Made up of Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla
Midbrain Controls eye movement, sleep, etc.
Pons Relay between cerebellum and cerebrum, etc.
Medulla Controls blood pressure, breathing, etc.
Cerebellum Involved in motor coordination and balance
Forebrain Largest part of brain
Diencephalon Under cortex, made up of Thalamus and Hypothalamus
Thalamus Relay system for sensory info
Hypothalamus Regulates homeostasis, links endocrine and neural systems
Cerebrum Made up of Cerebral Cortex and Basal Ganglia
Cerebral Cortex Outermost part of brain, divided into 4 lobes
Frontal Lobe Reasoning, motor skills, language
Parietal Lobe Kinesthetics, pain, somatosensory cortex
Temporal Lobe Hearing, memory, speech
Occipital Lobe Vision, colors, word recognition
Limbic System Learning, memory formation, emotions
Nociceptors Receptors involved with pain and discomfort
Receptive Field Area over which a stimulus will produce a response in a specific neuron
Gate-control Theory Touch and pain can interact in terms of reception
Autonomic Nervous System Controls subconscious functions of the body
Parasympathetic Nervous System Controls the body at rest (metabolism, etc)
Sympathetic Nervous System Prepares body for stress; danger.
Preganglionic Neuron Connect CNS to autonomic ganglion
Postganglionic Neuron Connect to target tissue
Sympathetic Chain Ganglia linked parallel to spinal cord; causes widespread sympathetic effect
Vagus Nerve Contains most of the cranial preganglionic nerves
ANS Sympathetic Neurotransmission ACh targets nicotinic receptors; followed by Norepinephrine binding adrenergic receptors
ANS Parasympathetic Neurotransmission ACh targets nicotinic receptors; followed by ACh targetting muscarinic receptors
Varicosities “boutons;” enlargements in axon where synapses connect to targets (motor end plate)
Effect of Cocaine Blocks reuptake of Norepinephrine; continually triggers sympathetic systems
Adrenal Medulla Sympathetic neuroendocrine tissue; “modified sympathetic ganglion”; secretes epinephrine
Chromaffin Cells Secrete epinephrine into blood; causes general alarm signal
Somatic Motor System Consciously controls skeletal muscle; only one neuron between system and muscle fibers
Motor Unit Collection of a motor neuron plus all the associated muscle fibers
Neuromuscular Junction Synapse between motor neuron and muscle fiber
Curare Natural toxin native in South America; antagonist of ACh receptors
Botulinum Toxin Cleaves a motor neuron protein involved in vesicle release; which paralyzes muscles
Nerve Gases Inhibit acetylcholinesterase; i.e. sarin
Reflex Automatic involuntary spinal cord action in response to a sensory stimulus; doesn't use brain
Muscle Spindle Senses lengthening of muscle and sends signal to the spinal cord; may in turn (through SC) activate counteracting muscle
Monosynaptic Reflex Muscle circuit involving only one synapse
Patellar Stretch Reflex Patellar tendon is tapped; knee jerks automatically
Skeletal Muscle Tissue Striated; attached to bones and controls movement (somatic peripheral system)
Cardiac Muscle Tissue Striated; runs heart. Controlled by autonomic system and hormones
Smooth Muscle Tissue Smooth; involved in organs/tubes/motion. Controlled by autonomic system and hormones.
Tendons Connect muscles to bones. Made out of collagen
Fascicles Bundles of muscle fibers
Sarcolemma Muscle fiber membrane
Sarcoplasm Muscle fiber cytoplasm
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Muscle fiber ER
Sarcomere A unit of actin and myosin – actually contracts muscle fibers
Myofibril A repeating arrangement of muscle fibers and proteins
T-tubules Long tubes in sarcolemma; conducts action potential to center of muscle fiber
Actin Remember – composed of two F-actin fibers wrapped around each other
Inactivation of muscle Tropomyosin wraps around actin and prevents myosin binding; troponin positions tropomyosin – on or off, by situation
Crossbridges Where myosin heads bind actin
Sliding filament model Myosin heads walk along actin filaments; bringing sarcomere ends closer together
Excitation-contraction coupling Motor neuron releases ACh onto muscle, opening Na channels and depolarizing muscle. AP travels down T-tubule into interior; causes Ca2+ channel opening in SR. Ca floods cytoplasm and activates troponin; allowing contraction
Twitch When a muscle cell responds to a single AP
Summation (muscular) Occurs if a muscle fiber is stimulated continually – Ca2+ won't be pumped back into SR
Tetanus Muscle doesn't relax at all – sustained maximal contraction
Recruitment As more motor units are recruited, the muscle will generate much larger force
Muscle Fiber Types Slow Oxidative (Type I); Fast Oxidative (Type IIA); Fast Glycolytic (Type IIB)
Type I Muscle Fiber Slow Oxidative – Red due to stored oxygen in myoglobin; small and fatigue resistant
Type IIA Muscle Fiber Fast Oxidative – Red due to stored oxygen in myoglobin; medium sized and fatigues moderately
Type IIB Muscle Fiber Fast Glycolytic – White due to lack of myoglobin; large and fatigues quickly
Flexor Muscle responsible for bringing bones closer
Extensor Muscle responsible for moving bones away from each other
Proprioceptors Sensory neurons in muscle
Golgi tendon organ Proprioceptor wrapped around connective tissue in tendon – helps protect from muscle tear/damage
Portal System Dumps blood from one capillary directly into another without it being redistributed by the heart
Diffusion Random movement of molecules in solution. Only effective over short distances
Bulk Flow Circulatory system's transfer of blood to capillaries in tissues
Diffusional Exchange Transfer of gases and nutrients in capillaries (short distances, large surface area)
Pulmonary Circulation Carries blood to lungs to be oxygenated; brings this back to heart
Systemic Circulation Carries oxygenated blood to other parts of the body, brings deoxygenated blood back
Arteries Large branching vessels that conduct blood away from the heart; elastic smooth muscle can withstand high pressure
Atherosclerosis Depositing of plaque in arteries; can lead to ruptures
Veins Large converging vessels that conduct blood to the heart; then flexible walls leave resistance relatively low
Arterioles Use variable pressure to control blood pressure (total flow remains the same)
Blood flow, by vessel Heart > Arteries > Arterioles > Capillaries > Venules > Veins
Series Arrangement Whole CV system. LH > systemic > RH > Pulmonary > LH
Parallel Arrangement Both pulmonary and systemic circuits run in parallel branches; allows independent regulation
Poisseuille's Law Flow is equal to the pressure difference divided by the resistance (NOT absolute P)
Total Blood Flow 5 L/min (both circuits)
Resistance Dependent on viscosity, length, and radius; first two are ignored. Resistance is inversely proportional to radius
Aorta Main artery, provides oxygenated blood to systemic circulation. Comes from left ventricle
Systole Valves close, heart contracts and empties, generating pressure
Diastole Valves open, heart relaxes and fills
Cardiac Output Equal to stroke volume multiplied by heart beat rate (may increase up to 5x when exercising)
Cardiac Muscle Mononucleated and branched with intercalated disks
Gap Junctions Provide electrical continuity between cells
Pacemaker cell Measures action potentials in order to measure heart contraction frequency
Cardiac refractory period Extra long (almost as long as the twitch) which helps prevent tetanus
Continual circulatory flow Arterial pressure from stretching is used to drive blood when ventricular pressure is zero
Single-unit smooth muscle Gap junctions allow contraction as a single unit
Multi-unit smooth muscle Fewer gap junctions; independent contractions allow precise control of multiple units
Muscle contractions (Fastest > Slowest) Skeletal > Cardiac > Smooth
Hypertension High blood pressure due to increased resistance; Heart must contract harder
Effects of exercise CO is increased 4-fold, increasing pressure and thus a drop in resistance
Capillary Sphincter When relaxed, allows nutrients/waste to travel between capillaries and tissue cells
Fluid Capillary Transport Depends on osmotic pressure and blood pressure
Lymphatic System Collects excess tissue fluid; returns it to blood in the veins
Swollen feet, ankles or other body parts Caused by blocked lymphatics or circulation
Distribution of blood by volume 60% in veins, 15% in arteries, 12 in pulmonary blood vessels, 8% in heart, 5% in capillaries
Skeletal Muscle Pump Valves which assure one-way flow from lower extremities to the heart
Sympathetic Nerves Use (nor)/epinephrine to increase blood pressure, stroke volume, and cardiac output
Parasympathetic Nerves Use acetylcholine to slow APs and heart rate; little effect on ventricle contractions
Valsalva Maneuver (Anti-homeostasis) Forceful exhalation against a closed airway; reduces blood flow (veins/brain), CO
Starling Curve Changes in end-diastolic volume (increased venous return) increases stroke volume
Autonomic Arteriole Regulation Sympathetic nerves constrict most arterioles to increase blood flow to others
Metabolic Arteriole Regulation Constricts or dilates arterioles to regulate metabolic activity (also capillaries)
Circulatory Homeostasis During exercise, muscle/respiratory pumps increase venous return to maintain homeostasis
Arterial Baroreceptors Detect changes in arterial pressure (through AP frequency) and send to CV control center
HBR Heart Rate
SV Stroke Volume
CO Cardiac Output (HBR * SV)
TPR Total Peripheral Resistance
MAP Mean Arterial Pressure (CO * TPR)
Fick's Law of Diffusion Flux of solute is proportional to Area * Concentration / Distance
Bulk Flow Refers to the blood circulation and breathing; dependent on differences in pressure and vessel resistance
Cystic Fibrosis Lack of a protein regulating mucus etc; leads to trouble breathing, digestive problems, sweat etc.
Pleural sacs/fluid Attach lung to the chest wall; facilitating air flow in and out of lung
Respiratory Inspiration Diaphragm contracts, ribs and chest (thoracic cavity) expand; drawing in air
Respiratory Expiration Diaphragm relaxes; ribs and chest (thoracic cavity) contract; expelling air
Pneumothorax Seal of chest cavity is broken; lungs aren't bound by pleural fluid so they gradually collapse
Boyle's Law P1V1 = P2V2 (explains how air flows into and out of lungs)
O2 Distribution About 20% is used, the rest is kept in storage (excess capacity)
Pulmonary Capillaries Located in walls of alveoli; large alveolar surface area and thin membrane allow exchange within 1 second
Pneumonia Excess fluid in alveoli increases distance and decreases diffusion; results in less O2 to blood and tissues
Forces Opposing Muscle Work in Breathing Tissue resistance of chest wall; Airway resistance; compliance of lungs (∆V/∆P)
Surface Tension Tension of water in alveoli increases work of breathing
Surfactant Compound that lowers surface tension and pressure, making breathing easier (useful for babies/sick people)
Hemoglobin Protein in red blood cells that binds and transports O2 (high affinity for CO => toxicity); 4 hemes and 4 globins each
Hemoglobin effects on diffusion Hb-bound O2 is different from free O2, so bound O2 increases O2 release, vice versa and etc.
Bicarbonate ion HCO3-, method of transporting CO2 in the plasma. Released by pancreas in response to acid from stomach
S-shaped Hb Curve Allows maintenance of homeostatic O2 levels, despite acidity/temperature/etc. (increases binding)
Red hands/extremities May be due to cold or CO poisoning; bound Hb is visibly red
Hematocrit Percentage of RBC per blood volume; proportional to O2/CO2 capacity
Erythropoietin (epo) Increases/involved in RBC production
Blood Doping Transfusion of RBC or epo to increase hematocrit and thus O2 capacity
Carbonic Anhydrase Catalyzes the reaction between CO2 and HCO3-; similar effects to Hb
Functions of the Urinary System Regulate plasma composition; remove waste products/toxins from bloodstream
Nitrogenous Wastes Ammonia (soluble, toxic); Uric acid (insoluble); Urea (soluble, non-toxic)
Kidney Functions Filter blood, reabsorb nutrients and >99% of water; secrete and excrete toxins in urine
Kidney Dialysis Removal of waste by diffusion equilibration across dialysis membrane
Ureters Transport urine from kidneys to bladder
Bladder Stores urine
Urethra Excrete urine from bladder to outside of the body
Nephron Functional unit of the kidney: Consists of Bowman's capsule, its associated tubules, and a loop of Henle
Afferent Arteriole Carries blood to the glomerulus
Efferent Arteriole Carries blood away from the glomerulus
Renal Corpuscle The unit consisting of Bowman's capsule and glomerulus; first step of filtration
Bowman's Capsule First step in filtration of blood to urine; contains glomerulus enclosed in a sac
Glomerulus A cluster of capillaries that carry out the first step of filtration, filtrate passes through Bowman's to the DCT
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) Reabsorbs all nutrients, most ions and water; some toxin secretion (all passive/obligatory)
Loop of Henle Connects PCT to DCT; maintains osmotic pressure in the nephron
Vasa Recta Straight capillaries that run parallel to the loop of Henle; allow reabsorption of ions and urea
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) Reabsorbs ions and water; secretes toxins, urea, and excess ions
Aldosterone Regulates reabsorption of Na and Cl ions in the DCT
Mechanism of Aldosterone Increases number of Na/K pumps on basolateral membrane; opens channels on apical membrane
Production of Aldosterone JGA granular cells secrete renin ---> converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin → triggers aldosterone
ADH Anti-diuretic hormone; regulates reabsorption of water by opening aquaporins in principal cells
Regulation of ADH Release Increased osmolarity or reduced blood pressure/volume stimulate release from hypothalamus
Collecting Duct Final step of kidney reabsorption/secretion; passes urine on to the ureter
Renal Arteries Carry oxygenated blood to kidney where it is continually filtered; receives about 20% of CO at rest
Peritubular Capillaries Blood vessels along nephrons; allow reabsorption and secretion using gradients
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus (JGA) Regulates tubule and nephron functions
Podocytes Located in outer layer of glomerulus; provide selectivity through filtration (retain plasma proteins and RBCs)
Glomerular Filtration Forces Primarily capillary pressure (hydrostatic and osmotic); less so Bowman's capsule pressures
Rate of Filtration (Bowman's) Highly regulated; can be significantly affected by small changes in glomerular capillary pressure
Formula for Excretion Filtration - resabsorption + secretion
Formula for Urine Volume Glomerular Filtration - reabsorption + secretion
Water Distribution in the Body 66%/33% split (28 liters in intracellular fluid; 14 liters in extracellular fluid)
Hyper/Hyponatremia High/low plasma concentration of sodium ions
Proportion of Sodium Reabsorption 70% in PCT; 30% in DCT
ACE Inhibitors Molecules that inhibit enzymes involved in the production of aldosterone; may reduce hypertension, etc.
GI Pathway Mouth > Pharynx > Esophagus > Stomach > Small Intestine > Colon/Large Intestine > Rectum > Anus
GI Motility Smooth muscle contractions in GI tract helps push the food from one end to another
Layers of the GI Tract Wall Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis Externa, Serosa
Mucosa Made up of epithelial cells and connective tissue
Submucosa Made up of connective tissue, blood vessels, and elements of the enteric (intestinal) nervous system
Muscularis Externa Made up of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle
Serosa Made of solely connective tissue
Accessory Glands of GI Tract Salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
Long vs Short Reflexes Long reflexes occur through CNS while short reflexes occur locally in the GI tract
Cephalic Phase Mental stimuli through CNS; thoughts of food which stimulate production of saliva, acid, mucus, and pepsinogen
Gastric Phase Stomach stimuli; food in stomach stimulates long&short reflexes involving gastrin, secretes acid and pepsinogen
Intestinal Phase Small intestinal stimuli; fat and protein stimulate long/short reflexes with CCK and secretin, stimulate secretions
Lysozyme Enzyme in saliva that destroys bacteria
Salivary Amylase Enzyme in saliva that breaks down starch
Secreting Cells in Gastric Pits Neck cells, chief cells, parietal cells, G cells
Neck Cells Secrete mucus
Chief Cells Secrete pepsinogen
Parietal Cells Secrete acid
G Cells Secrete gastrin into the bloodstream
Acid Reflux (Heart Burn) Stomach acid flows backwards into esophagus due to weakness/relaxing of lower esophageal sphincter
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Frequent acid reflux; can be caused by obesity, pregnancy, smoking, medications
Ulcers Erosions of GI tract lining; caused by acid/pepsin breaking down lining (can be caused by aspirin or infection)
Chyme Partially digested food mixed with gastric juices (yum)
Duodenum First portion of small intestine; where pancreatic enzymes and bile carry out most of digestion
Villi Extensions which give the small intestine more surface area for absorption; each has capillaries and lacteals
Lacteals Part of the lymphatic system; take up fat for reabsorption
Enterocytes Epithelial cells of the small intestine; contains/covered by brush border
Brush Border Microvilli that cover enterocytes, increase surface area to aid in absorption
Secretin Triggered by HCl release; causes secretion of pancreatic bicarbonate
Cholecystokinin (CCK) Triggered by proteins and fat in intestine; causes secretion of pancreatic enzymes
Carbohydrate Transport Sugar transporters in the apical membrane of enterocytes use Na gradient to pump monomers into cell
Zymogens Proteins/peptides are secreted as this inactive form (until the duodenum); i.e. trypsinogen or pepsinogen
Trypsin Active form of protease which cleaves/activates zymogens
Hepatic Portal Vein Bring amino acids and sugars to liver for detoxification on the way to the heart
Bile Made by liver and stored in gallbladder; made of amphiphilic bile salts and other waste products to be eliminated
Emulsification Bile helps break down fat globules into smaller droplets
Gallstones Painful byproduct of excess cholesterol or insufficient bile
Chylomicrons Packages of digested fatty acids; released via exocytosis and drained into blood through lacteals
Foxglove Digitalis Blocks Na/K pump, causes increased urine excretion (too much can be fatal)
Diabetes Mellitus Disease characterized by high blood sugar; often related to insulin problems
Type I Diabetes Autoimmune; damage to beta cells causes low insulin lvels (5-10% of cases)
Type II Diabetes Specific cells develop resistance to insulin (90-95% of cases); often related to obesity
Created by: yazaria