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Chapter 2 Terms

Biotech terms and definition from Chapter 2.

Enivironment The surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives or operates.
Plant Breeding Plant breeding is the art and science of Changing the genetics of plants in order to produce desired characteristics.
Enzyme A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.
Renin An enzyme secreted by and stored in the kidneys that promotes the production of the protein angiotensin.
Fermentation The chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat.
Yeast A microscopic fungus consisting of single oval cells that reproduce by budding, and are capable of converting sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Heredity The passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another
Law of Segregation Members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair.
Law of Independent Assortment Each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random.
Cells The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically consist of a single cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.
Vaccine A substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity against one or several diseases, prepared from the causative agent of a disease, its products, or a synthetic substitute.
Antibiotic A medicine (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms.
Artificial Insemination The injection of semen into the vagina or uterus other than by sexual intercourse.
Embryo Transfer Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy.
Genetic Code The nucleotide triplets of DNA and RNA molecules that carry genetic information in living cells.
Vertical Gene Transfer Reproduction (or procreation) is the biological process by which new "offspring" individual organisms are produced from their "parents". Each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
Double Helix A pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis, esp. that in the structure of the DNA molecule.
Genetic Engineering The deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material.
Horizontal Gene Transfer Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) refers to the transfer of genes between organisms in a manner other than traditional reproduction.
Gene Splicing Genetic engineering: the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism.
Created by: Sarah_Alexa