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Rocks Final Exam P2

study guide for rocks

Crust The layer of rock that forms the earth surface
Mantle The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core
Core the center of the earth that is made of two parts the inner core and the outer core both are made of iron and nickel.
Constructive force A force that builds up mountains and landmasses on Earth's surface
Destructive focre A force that slowly wears away mountains and other features on the surface of the Earth
Lithosphere A ridged layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust
Asthenosphere The soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats
What rock makes up oceanic crust Balsalt
What rock makes up continental crust Granite
Radiation The transfer of energy througth an empty space
Convection The transfer of heat by movement of aheated fluid
Conduction The transfer of heat by direct contact of particals of matter
Theory of continetal drift The hypotheis that the continets slowly move across Earth's surface
Alfred Wegener A young German scientest who became curious about the relationship of the continets: came up withTheory of continetal drift
Pangea The name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents
Mid Ocean Ridge The undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary
Subduction The process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary
Theory of plate tectonics The theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle
Convergent boundary A plate boundary where two plates move toward each other
Divergent boundary A plate boundary where two plates move away from each other
Transform boundary A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
Faults break in Earth's crust where slabs of rock slip past each other
Shearing Stress that pushes a mass of rock in opposite directions
Tension Stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
Compression Stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
Strike Slip faults faults are caused by shearing where the rock on each side of the fault moves sideways past each other
Normal Fault Caused by tension forces which causes the hanging wall to slip downward from the footwall
Reverse Faults caused by compression forces which causes the hanging wall to push back into the footwall
Seismic waves Vibrations that travel through the Earth carrying the energy released during a earthquake
3 type of sesmic waves P waves, S wave, Surface waves
P waves 1st waves to arive to surface compresses and expand like and accordion: travel through solids like and liquids
S waves Come after the p waves shake ground back and fourth shake structures vionlently: cannot move through liquids
Surface waves when some P and S waves reach surface some might become surface waves, move slower then P and S waves, produce the most severe grounnd movements
The Mercalli Scale A scale that rates earthquakes accodring to thier intensity and how much damage they cause
The Richter Scale A scale that rates seismic waves as measured by a particcular type of mechanical
Moment Magnitude Scale A scale that rates earthquakes buestimateing the total energy released by an earthquakes
Created by: nickodo1