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APES First Quarter

Rachel Carson Author of <i>Silent Spring</i>
Pesticide Any chemical designed to kill or inhibit the growth of an organism that people consider undesirable
Biomagnification Increase in concentration of DDT, PCBs, and other slowly degradable, fat-soluble chemicals in organisms at successively higher trophic levels of a food chain/web
Environmental science Interdisciplinary study that uses info and ideas from physical sciences with those from the social sciences and humanities to learn how nature works, how we interact with the environment, and how we can to help deal with environmental problems
Ecology Biological science that studies the relationships between living organisms and their environment; study of the structure functions of nature
Sustainability Ability of earth's various systems, including human cultural and economies, to survive and adapt to changing environmental conditions indefinitely
Ecological footprint Amount of biologically productive land/water needed to supply a population with the renewable resources it uses and absorb or dispose if the wastes from such resource use. It is a measure of the AVG environmental impact of populations in different areas.
Natural resources Materials such as air, water, soil and energy in nature that are essential or useful to humans
Renewable resources Resources that can be replenished rapidly (hours to several decades) through natural processes as long as it is not used up faster than it is replaced
Nonrenewable resources Resources that exists in a fixed amount (Stock) in the earth's crust and has the potential for renewal by geological, physical, and chemical processes taking place over hundreds of millions to billions of years
5 Basic Causes of Environmental Problems Population growth Unsustainable Resource use Poverty Excluding environmental costs from market prices Trying to manage nature without knowing enough about it
Scientific method The ways scientists gather data and formulate and test scientific hypotheses, models, theories, and laws
Hypothesis (Null Hypothesis) Educated guess
Independent variable The changing variable
Dependent variable The variable that remains constant
Controlled experiment Only one variable is changed between different test subjects to identify differences.
Correlation Mutual relationship between 2+ things
Agricultural revolution Gradual shift from small, mobile hunting and gathering bands to settle agricultural communities in which people survived by breeding and raising wild animals and cultivating wild plants near where they lived. Began 10,000-12,000 years ago.
Industrial revolution The transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
Green revolution Popular term for the the introduction of scientifically bred or selected varieties of grain (rice, wheat, maize) that, with adequate inputs of fertilizer and water, can greatly increase crop yields
Information revolution Use of new technologies to enable people to have increasingly rapid access to much more information on a global scale
Tragedy of the Commons depletion or degradation of a potentially renewable resource to which people gave free and ill-managed access
Conservation Sensible and careful use of natural use of natural resources by humans
Preservation The action of preserving something
Environmental movement The gathered effort of those who are concerned about the human impact on the environment
Gaia hypothesis the theory, put forward by James Lovelock, that living matter on the earth collectively defines and regulates the material conditions necessary for the continuance of life. The planet is thus likened to a vast self-regulating organism.
Spaceship Earth View of the the earth as a spaceship: a machine that we can understand, control, and change at will by using advanced technology
Tribal era A large amount of people in the Americas had low-impact life on the environment This era began in the early 1600's
Frontier era This era included the American colonization
Executive branch President and staff
Legislative branch Congress
Judicial branch Courts
Aldo Leopold Forester, writer, and conservationist
John Muir Geologist, naturalist, and explorer Spent 6 yrs studying Yosemite (founded it in 1890) and explored the wilderness of UT, NV,the Northwest, and AK Founded the Sierra Club Spent 22 yrs lobbying for conservation laws
Theodore Roosevelt 26th president Ardent conservationist
Gifford Pinchot The first chief of the US Forestry Service
EPA Environmental Protection Agency Protagonist of <i>The Simpsons Movie</i>
NEPA National Environmental Policy Act
Clean Air Act A law putting the foot down on air pollution, first in the UK in 1956
Clean Water Act A failed attempt to meet EPA's standard of safe drinking water
Endangered Species Act In 1973, the US passed this law to protect endangered species
Safe Drinking Water Act The law that set the standard on how safe drinking water should be (Set by the EPA)
EIS Environmental Impact Statement
National Energy Act This law encourages conservation
Superfund law Law to identify sites that have been contaminated by hazardous wastes and clean them up on a priority basis
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
A Horizon Topsoil Contains inorganic material like silt, clay, and sand
B Horizon Subsoil
C Horizon Parent Material Bedrock
O Horizon Leaf litter
R Horizon Granite, basalt, quartzite, etc
Topsoil A Horizon Teems with bacteria, fungi, earthworms, and small insects
Parent Material C Horizon
Salinization Accumulation of salts in soil that can eventually make the soil unable to support plant growth
Desertification Conversion of rangeland, rain-fed cropland, or irrigated cropland to desert-like land, with a drop in agricultural productivity of 10% or more. It usually is caused by a combination of overgrazing, soil erosion, prolonged drought, and climate change.
Troposphere Innermost layer of the atmosphere It contains about 75% of earth's air mass and extends about 17 km above sea level
Stratosphere Second layer of the atmosphere Extends about 17-48 km above sea level Small amounts of gaseous ozone
Mesosphere 50-80 km above sea level This is where meteors burn up
Thermosphere Outermost shell of the atmosphere
Exosphere Outermost region of the atmosphere
Ozone Layer Layer of gaseous ozone in the stratosphere that protects life on earth by filtering out most harmful UV radiation from the sun
Runoff Freshwater from precipitation and melting ice that flows on the earth's surface into nearby streams, lakes, wetlands, and reservoirs
Watershed Land area that delivers water, sediment and dissolved substances via small streams to a major stream (river)
Point vs Nonpoint Pollution (Point)Single identifiable source that causes pollution (Nonpoint)broad and diffuse areas, rather than points, from which pollutants enter bodies of surface water or air
Pangaea The super continent that was once all the continents combined before they drifted apart
Geosphere Earth's intensely hot core, thick mantle composed mostly of rock, and thin outer crust that contains most of the earth's rock, soil, and sediment
Uniformitarian Principle
Plate Tectonics Theory of geophysical processes that explains the movements of lithospheric plates and the processes that occur at their boundaries
Rock cycle Largest and slowest of the earth's cycles, consisting of geologic, physical, and chemical processes that form and modify rocks and soil in the earth's crust over millions of years
Transform fault Area where the earth's lithospheric plates move in opposite but parallel directions along a fracture (fault) in the lithosphere
Divergent boundary Area where the the earth's lithospheric plates move apart in opposite directions
Convergent boundary Area where the earth's plates are pushed together
Earthquakes Shaking of the ground resulting from the fracturing and displacement of rock, which produces a fault, or from subsequent movement along the fault
Erosion Process or group of processes by which loose or consolidated earth materials are dissolved, loosened, or worn away and removed from one place and deposited in another
Weathering Physical and chemical processes in which solid rock exposed at earth's surface is changed to separate solid particles and dissolved material, which can then be moved to another place as sediment
Volcanoes vent or fissure in the earth's surface through which magma, liquid lava, and gases are released into the atmosphere
First Law of Thermodynamics Energy is created or destroyed, but energy can be changed from one form to another; you cannot get more energy out of something than you put in; in terms of energy quantity, you cannot get something from nothing Doesn't apply to nuclear change
Second Law of Thermodynamics In any conversion of heat energy to useful work, some of the initial energy is always degraded to ;lower-quality, more dispersed, less useful energy--usually low-temp heat that flows into the the environment
Solar Intensity and latitude The amount of solar activity a certain area of latitude gets depends on the time of year
Hydrological cycle The water cycle: Evaporation Condensation Precipitation Repeat
Convection cells Also called currents They move large volumes of rock and heat in loops within the mantle like gigantic conveyor belts
Prevailing winds Differing directions of air movement
Tornadoes Swirling funnel-shaped clouds that form of land that can cause serious damage
Tsunamis Series of large waves generated when part of the ocean floor suddenly rises or drops
Rain shadow Low precipitation on the leeward side of a mountain when prevailing winds flow up and over a high mountain or range of high mountains, creating semiarid and arid conditions on the leeward side of a high mountain range
Atmosphere Whole mass of air surrounding the earth
Climate vs. Weather The difference is length of time Weather is temporary is changing constantly Climate is more permanent
Coriolis Effect The observed effect of the Coriolis force, especially the deflection of an object moving above the earth, rightward in the northern hemisphere and leftward in the southern hemisphere.
ENSO El Nino-Southern Oscillation A shift in trade winds
Created by: nerdyxedge