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Rica Vocabulary

Rica Vocabulary List

TermDefinition
Affixes A group of bound morphemes, prefixes, such as anti- or un-, and suffixes, such as -ful or -sion. When added to a word or a root, affixes change the meaning of the word, parts of speech, and pronunciation.
Alphabetic Principle The assumption underlying alphabetic writing systems that each sound or phoneme of a language should have its own distinctive graphic representation.
Anticipation Guide These guides allow individual students to reflect on and express their opinions about what they are reading. These guides can be used to challenge or confirm their beliefs. Students can discuss their individual responses in small groups.
Appositive A word or phrase that restates or modifies an immediately preceding noun. (e.g. Thomas, Mr. Reyes's son, will graduate this June).
Assessment The act or process of gathering data in order to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of student learning, as by observation, testing, interviews, etc.
Auditory Blending The ability to fuse or blend discrete phonemes or sounds into recognizable words.
Author's Chair This activity provides students an opportunity for readers and writers to share what they are reading and writing. The student in the author's chair reads aloud a selected piece of text or a piece of their own writing. Peers then can respond.
Base Word A word to which affixes may be added to create related words, as source in resource or resourceful. Base words are also referred to as free morphemes because they can stand by themselves.
Book Talk A way of introducing new books to students. Book talks can be led by teachers, librarians, or students themselves. The person giving a book talk can use the information provided in the book jacket.
Cloze The term refers to a variety of sentence completion techniques in which words are strategically left out of a text so that readers can supply the missing words using only context clues. Cloze tests can be designed to provide informal diagnostic info.
Consonant Blend A combination of 2 or 3 consonants that appear consecutively in a word and each consonant represents its most common sound. Two or three consonants are blended, however, each retains its own sound. These can be initial or final consonants, as sw in swell.
Consonant Digraph A combination of two consonant letters representing a single speech sound, as gn for /n/ in gnat, sh for /sh/ in wish, or gh for /f/ in rough.
Content-Subject Text Books, textbooks, and/or materials related to specific subjects such as science or social studies. Often categorized as informational or expository texts.
Context Clue Information available from the immediate textual setting that helps identify an unknown word or word groups. Context clues include meanings of other words, phrases, sentences, parts of speech or syntax, and illustrations.
Cueing Systems These are 3 of the language systems on which readers rely for cues as they decode and identify meaning from the text: graphophonic (based on letter-sound relationships and visual knowledge); semantic (based on meaning); and syntactic (based on grammar).
Decoding This involves a series of strategies used selectively by readers to recognize written words. In decoding, the reader locates cues in a word that reveal enough about it to help in its pronunciation and in attaching meaning to it.
Decodable Text The purpose of this type of text is to provide repeated practice for, recognizing spelling units in printed words or letter-sound patterns, taught in phonics instruction.
Diagnostic Teaching The use of the results of student performance on current tasks to plan future learning activities; instruction in which diagnosis and instruction are fused into a single ongoing process.
Dialogue Journal These journals are written dialogue between the journal "owner" and a selected "partner;" the partner responds to what has been written by the owner. It is important that responses deal with what has been written and not just the conventions of writing.
Differential Reading Instruction The provision of varied learning situations and reading instruction, as whole class, small-group, or individual instruction, to meet the needs of students at different levels of reading competence, such as the use of different grade-level texts.
Digraph Two letters that represent one speech sound as ch for /ch/ in cheese or ea for /e/ in bread.
Diphthong The cow wears a thong. A vowel sound produced when the tongue moves or glides from one vowel sound toward another vowel sound in the same syllable, as /oi/ in boy, coil, or /ou/ in sound, cow.
Double-entry Journal A student takes notes and adds reflections while reading any text. A 2-column format is used. Typ. the left column is used to record specific statements from a text that are important in understanding the text; the right to record responses and reactions.
Emergent Literacy Development of the association of print with meaning that begins early in a child's life and continues until the child reaches the stage of conventional reading/writing; "the reading/writing concepts and behaviors of young children that precede literacy."
Encoding Transferring or sounding out letters in the written language into sounds in order to decode words.
Environmental Print Any print which is found in the physical environment, such as street signs, billboards, labels, business signs, food boxes, etc.
Etymology A branch of linguistics that studies the origin and historical development of words. Pieology, the study of pizza pies.
Explicit Instruction Thoughtful systematic instruction of concepts, strategies, and knowledge that usually builds from simple to complex in clearly formulated and defined ways and is known to both teachers and learners.
Flexible Grouping Initially, students' reading progress informs the placement in reading groups. However, students may be moved to another reading group based on their progress.
Fluency The ability to read smoothly, quickly and with expression.
Frustration Reading Level A readability or grade level of material that is too difficult to be read successfully by a student even with normal classroom instruction and support.
Genre A term used to classify literary works into categories, such as novel, mystery, historical, fiction, biography, short story, erotic fan fiction (50 Shads of Grey), poem, etc.
Grapheme A written or printed representation of a phoneme as b for /b/ and oy for /oi/.
Grapheme-Phoneme Correspondence The relationship between a grapheme and the phoneme it represents, also known as letter-sound correspondence, as in c represents /k/ in cat and /s/ in cent.
Graphic Organizer Graphic organizers are effective visual tools for thinking and learning as they hep teachers and students to represent abstract or implicit information in more concrete form; depict the relationships among facts and concepts; see full definition.
High Frequency Word A word that appears many more times than most other words in spoken or written language (see also Dolch words, Fry's words); or learning sequences.
Implicit Instruction Indirect teaching that may not directly express what is to be learned but offers students opportunities for more inductive reasoning and exploration of ideas, concepts, or learning sequences.
Informal Assessment Use of student work, observation notes taken while students are engaged in reading, writing, listening, and/or speaking. The data thus collected can be used to assess student abilities and plan instruction.
Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) The use of graded series of word lists and passages of increasing difficulty to determine students' strengths, weaknesses, and strategies in word identification and comprehension.
Independent Reading Level The grade level of reading material that a child can easily read independently with high comprehension and few word identification problems, and an accuracy rate of 95 to 100%
Instructional Reading Level The grade level of reading material that a child can read successfully, with instruction and support, with 90% to 94% accuracy.
Interactive Writing A shared experience used to assist emergent readers in learning to read and write. With the help from the teacher, students dictate sentences about a shared experience, such as a story, movie, or event.
Invented Spelling Also known as temporary spelling, or approximation, refers to an emergent writer's attempt to spell a word phonetically when the spelling is unknown. Children's temp. spelling is a direct reflection of their own developing knowledge of phonics.
IRI Word Lists Graded lists of 20 words that is used to identify with which grade level passage, the passage test of the IRI should begin with. See IRI.
Irregular Sight Words Words that contain letter-sound correspondences unique to themselves or to only a few words, such as was, they, none, and done. When learning to read students need to know such words fluently and automatically as the progress in their reading skills.
KWL A flexible and popular strategy for guiding students' thinking about a text before, during, and after reading. The letters stand for what students _K_now about a particular topic, what they _W_ant to find out, and what they have _L_earned.
Language Experience Approach This approach helps beginning learners bring their own knowledge and experience to bear in constructing ideas and sentences. Students' utterances are written by the teacher and this material is used to teach reading. See full definition.
Learning Center/Stations A location within the classroom in which students are presented with instructional materials, specific directions, clearly defined objectives and/or provisions for self-evaluation on tasks/activities of reading, listening, and/or writing.
Listening Comprehension Level The highest level of material that can be comprehended well when it is read aloud to the student.
Mapping Organizing and thinking tool that assists students in understanding concepts, ideas, or relationships and provides a structure for elaborating information, defining vocabulary, comparing or contrasting, or determining hierarchies.
Miscue Analysis A strategy for analyzing the errors students make when they read aloud. After listening to a student and noting their reading, a teacher can categorize students' errors or patterns of errors in order to determine student strengths, needs, and steps.
Morpheme A linguistic unit of relatively stable meaning that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts; the smallest meaningful part of a word.
Morphology The study of structure and meaning forms in words including derivation, inflection, and compounding.
Onset and Rime The onset is the portion of the syllable or single syllabic word that precedes the vowel (in black the onset is bl). The rime is the vowel and whatever comes after it in the syllable (ack is the rime in black).
Open Syllable A syllable ending in a vowel sound rather than a consonant sound, as /ba/ and /be/ in baby.
Created by: blakex on 2013-04-05



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