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Unit 7 AP Human Geo

Agriculture and Rural Geography

WordsDefinitions
Agribusiness the set of economic and political relationships that organized food production for commercial purposes. It includes activities ranging from seed production, to retailing, to consumption of agricultural products
agriculture the art of science of producing food from the land and tending livestock for the purpose of human consumption
animal husbandry and agricultural activity associated with the raising of domesticated animal, such as cattle, horses, sheep, goats
biotechnology a form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes
capital-intensive agriculture form of agriculture that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large amounts of agriculture goods-a process requiring very little human labo
commercial agricultural economy all agricultural activity generated for the purpose of selling, not necessarily for local consumption
dairying an agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter
domestication the conscious manipulation of plant and animal species by humans in order to sustain themselves
extensive agriculture an agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area
feellots places where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate that grazing; often referred to as factory farms
genetically modified food/crops (GMC) foods that are mostly products of organisms that have had their genes altered in laboratory for specific purposes, such as disease resistance, increased productivity, or nutritional value allowing growers greater control, predictability, and efficiency
green revolution the development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe
hunting and gathering the killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance
industrial revolution the rapid economic changes that occurred in agriculture and manufacturing in England in the late 18th century and that rapidly spread to other parts of the developed world
intensive cultivation any kind of agricultural activity that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yield
labor-intensive agriculture type of agriculture that requires large level of manual labor to be successful
livestock ranching an extensive commercial agriculture activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West
mediterranean agriculture an agriculture system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados, olives, and a host nuts, fruits, and vegetables.
Pastoralism a type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animals husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter
pesticides chemicals used on plants that do not harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals
plantation a large, frequently foreign-owned piece of agricultural production of a single export crop
shifting cultivation the use of tropical forest clearings for crop production until their fertility is lost. Plots are then abandoned, and farmers move on to new sites
slash-and-burn a system of cultivation that usually exists in tropical areas where vegetation is cut close to the ground and then ignited. The fire introduces nutrients into the soil, thereby making it productive for a relatively short period of time
swidden land that is prepared for agriculture by using slash-and-burn method
transhumance the movements of livestock according to seasonal patterns, generally lowland areas in the winter, and highland areas in the summer
urban sprawl the process of urban area expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land
von Thunen model an agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activity in terms of rent. Activities that require intensive cultivation and cannot be transported over great distances pay higher rent to be close to the market.
Created by: sajavoo on 2008-05-14



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