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unit 3 AP Human Geo

Population Geography

age-sex distribution (population pyramid) a model used in population geography that describes the ages and the number of males and females within a given population; also called population pyramid
baby boom a cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of fertility
baby burst period of time during the 1960s and 1970s when fertility rates in the United States dropped as large number or women from baby boom generation sought higher levers of education and more competitive jobs
carrying capacity the largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can sustainably support
chain migration the migration event in which individuals follow the migratory path of preceding friends or family members to an existing community
cohort a population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently
cotton belt the term by which he american south used to be known, as cotton historically dominated the agricultural economy of the region. The same area is know as the New South or Sun Belt
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) the number of live births per year per 1,000 people
Crude Death Rate (CDR) the number of deaths per year per 1,000 people
demographic accounting equation an equation that summarizes the amount of growth or decline in a population within a country during a particular time period taking into account both natural increase and net migration
Demographic Transition Model (DTM) a sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time
demography the study of human populations, including their temporal and spatial dynamics
dependency ratio the ratio of the number of people who are either too old or young to provide for themselves to the number of people who must support them through their own labor. This is usually expressed in the form n:100 where n equals the number of dependents
doubling time time period required for a population to experiencing exponential growth to double in size completely
emigration the process of moving out of a particular country, usually, the individual person's country of origin
exponential growth growth that occurs when a fixed percentage of new people is added to the population each year. Exponential growth is compound because the fixed growth rate applies to the an ever-increasing population
forced migration the migration event in which individuals are forced to leave a country against their will
immigration the process of individuals moving into a new country with the intentions of remaining there
infant mortality rate the percentage of children who die before their 1st birth day within a particular area or country
internal migration the permanent or semipermanent movement of individuals within a particular area or country
life expectancy the average age individuals are expected to live, which varies across space, between genders, and even between races
Thomas Malthus author of EASSAY ON THE PRINCIPLE OF POPULATION (1798) who claimed that population grows at an exponential rate while food production increases arithmetically, and thereby that, eventually, population growth would out place food production
migration a long-term move of a person from one political jurisdiction to another
natural increase rate the difference between the number of births and number of deaths with in a particular country
Neo-Malthusian advocacy if population control programs to ensure enough resources for current and future population
overpopulation a value judgement based on the notion that the resources of a particular area are not great enough to support that area's current population
population density a measurement of the number of persons per unit land area
population geography a division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movement of population
population pyramid a model used in population geography to show the age and sex distribution of a particular population
pull factors attractions that draw migrants to a certain place, such as a pleasant climate and employment or educational opportunities
push factors incentives for potential migrants to leave a place, such as a harsh climate, economic recession, or political turmoil
refugees people who leave their home because they are forced out, but not because they are being officially relocated or enslaved
rust belt the norther industrial states of the United States, including Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, in which heavy industry was once dominant economic activity.
sun belt U.S region, mostly comprised of southwestern states, which has grown most dramatically since World War II
total fertility rate the average number of children born to a women during a childbearing years
voluntary migration movement of an individual who consciously and voluntary decides to locate to a new area-the opposite of forced migration
zero population growth proposal to the end population growth though a variety of official and nongovernmental family planning programs
Created by: sajavoo on 2008-05-13

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