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Natual Disasters

Volcanoes and Earthquakes - Jordan R.

continental drift Wegener's hypothesis that all continents were once connected in a single large landmass that broke apart about 200 million years ago and driften slowly to their current positions
Pangaea large, ancient landmass that was composed of all the continents joined together
seafloor spreading Hess's theory that new seafloor is formed when magma is forced upward toward the surface at a mid-ocean ridge
plate techtonics theory that Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into plates that float and move around on a plasticlike layer of the mantle
plate a large section of Earth's oceanic or continental crust and rigid upper mantle that moves around on the asthenospere
lithosphere rigid layer of Earth about 100 km thick, made fo the crust and a part of the upper mantle
asthenosphere plasticlike layer of Earth on which the lithospheric plates float and move around
convection current current in Earth's mantle that transfers heat in Earth's interior and is the driving force for plate techtonics
earthquake vibrations produced when rocks break along a fault
primary waves seismic wave that moves rock particles back-and-forth in the same direction that the wave travels
secondary waves seismic wave that moves rock particles at right angles to the direction of the wave
surface waves seismic wave that moves rock particles up-and-down in a backward rolling motion and side-to-side in a swaying motion
epicenter point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus
seismograph instrument used to register earthquake waves and record the time that each arrived
volcano opening in Earth's surface that erupts sulfurous gases, ash, and lava; can form at Earth's plate boundaries, where plates move apart or together, and at hot spots
vent opening when magma is forced up and flows out onto Earth's surface as lava, forming a volcano
crater steep-walled depression around a volcano's vent
hot spot the result of an unusually hot area at the boundary between Earth's mantle and core that forms volcanoes when melted rock is forced upward and breaks through the crust
shield volcano broad, gently sloping volcano formed by quiet eruptions of basaltic lava
cinder cone volcano steep-sided, loosely packed volcano formed when tephra falls to the ground
composite volcano volcano built by alternating explosive and quiet eruptions that produce layers of tephra and lava; found mostly wher Earth's plates come together and one plate sinks below the other (subduction)
tephra bits of rock or solidified lava dropped from the air during an explosive volcanic eruption; range sin size from volcanic ash to volcanic bombs and blocks
Created by: Jordan Raver