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Chapter 1 ABA


applied behaviour analysis (ABA) The science in which attics derived from the principles of behaviour are applied to improve socially significant behaviour and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement in behaviour
behaviorism The philosophy of a science of behaviour; there are various forms of behaviorism
determinism The assumption that the universe is a lawful and orderly place in which phenomena occur in relation to other events and not in a willy-nilly, accidental fashion
empiricism The objective observation of the phenomena of interest; objective observations are "independent of the individual prejudices, tastes, and private opinions of the scientist... Results of the empirical methods are objective in that they are open to anyone's
experimental analysis of behaviour A natural science approach to the study of behaviour as a subject matter in its own right founded by B.F. Skinner; methodological features include rate of response as a basic dependent variable, repeated or continuous measurement of clearly defined respon
explanatory fiction A fictitious or hypothetical variable that often takes the form of another name for the observed phenomenon it claims to explain and contributes nothing to a fictional account or understanding of the phenomenon, such as "intelligence" or "cognitive awaren
functional relation A verbal statement summarizing the results of an experiment (or group of related experiments) that describes the occurrence of the phenomena under study as a function of the operation of one or more specific and controlled variables in the experiment in w
hypothetical construct A presumed but unobserved process or entity (eg. Freud's id, ego, super ego)
mentalism An approach to explaining behaviour that assumes that a mental or "inner" dimension exists that differ from a behavioural dimension and that phenomena in this dimension either directly cause or at least mediate some forms of behaviour, if not all
methodological behaviourism A philosophical position that views behavioural event that cannot be publicly observed as outside the realm of science
parsimony The practice of ruling out simple, logical explanations, experimentally or conceptually, before considering more complex or abstract explanations
philosophic doubt An attitude that the truthfulness and validity of all scientific theory and knowledge should be continually questioned
radical behaviorism A thoroughgoing form of behaviourism that attempts to understand all human behaviour, including private events such as thoughts and feelings, in terms of controlling variables in the history of the person (ontogeny) and the species (phylogeny)
replication (a) repeating conditions within an experiment to determine the reliability of effects and increase internal validity. (b) Repeating whole experiments to determine the generality of findings of previous experiments to other subjects, settings, and/or behav
science A systematic approach to the understanding of natural phenomena (as evidenced by description, prediction, and control) the relies on determinism as its fundamental assumption, empiricism as its primary rule, experimentation as its basic strategy, replicat
Created by: Allison3000