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AP World History

Valhalla High School Bentley AP World Ch. 20

TermDefinitionSignificanceTime PeriodChapterRegion
Otto I Otto of Saxony rose in northern Germany by the mid-tenth century Pope John XII proclaimed him emperor in 962: birth of Holy Roman Empire (blank) 20 Europe
Investiture contest Formerly, important church officials were appointed by imperial authorities Gave church lots of power (blank) 20 Europe
Frederick Barbarossa Sought to absorb Lombardy in north Italy Papal coalition forced Barbarossa to relinquish his rights in Lombardy (blank) 20 Europe
Capetian France Hugh Capet founded dynasty from 987 lasted three centuries (blank) 20 Europe
The Normans were descendents of Vikings in Normandy, France Duke William of Normandy invaded England in 1066 (blank) 20 Europe
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Cathedral Schools Schools organized in France and Northern Italy by bishops and archbishops in early 11th century Latin became official language, Roman Catholic church grew stronger and more influential, philosophy and theology were studied 1000C.E.-1300C.E. 20 Western Europe
Scholasticism Theology whose intention was to combine Christian values/beliefs with Greek philosphy appealed to the sophisticated elite, considered the most advanced knowledge at the time 1000C.E.-1300C.E. 20 Western Europe
St. Thomas Aquinas Most famous Scholastic theologian, lived 1225-1274 Incorporated his Catholic beliefs in God with Aristotle's reason, reinforced beliefs with rational thought 1000C.E.-1300C.E. 20 Western Europe
Sacraments Holy rituals that bring spiritual blessing to observants Brought individuals closer to church, encouraged frequent attendance to services 1000C.E.-1300C.E. 20 Western Europe
Virgin Mary Mother of Jesus Christ, most popular saint Hundreds of churches dedicated to her, symbolized womanhood, love, sympathy 1000C.E.-1300C.E. 20 Western Europe
Saint's Relics Collections of relics and physical remains of saints and holy figures Promoted veneration and admiration of saints, led to materialism and corruption of the church 1000C.E.-1300C.E. 20 Western Europe
Pilgrimage Many pilgrims visited European cities known for Catholic significance Massive number of pilgrims required travel industry, inns and guides established to help them, commercial profit for many 1000C.E.-1300C.E. 20 Western Europe
Dominicans and Franciscans Individuals including St. Dominic and St. Francis who sought to revive spiritual values of the church by organizing mendicants ("beggers")- orders of people that lived in poverty Contributed to the acknowledgement of spiritual values over materialism, spread Catholicism 1000C.E.-1300C.E. 20 Western Europe
Waldensians Group of people who opposed Roman Catholic church due to corruption, lived modestly Criticism of the church/clergy attracted many, some still survive today 1000C.E.-1300C.E. 20 Western Europe
Cathars(Albigensians) People who adopted heretical teachings, viewed material world as evil, lived ascetically Rejected Roman Catholic church, contributed to ideas of its corruption in the Mediterranean 1000C.E.-1300C.E. 20 Western Europe
Leif Ericsson Son of Eric the Red. Conquered parts of Greenland and founded Newfoundland in Canada. The founding of Newfoundland gave many resources to the expnading Scandinavian Vikings. 1000 C.E. 20 Scandinavia
Vinland Part of Newfoundland that Leif Ericsson founded. Vinland was full of timber, fish, and wild grapes, which made excellent terms for living. 1000 C.E. 20 Newfoundland, Canada
Templars Order of religious military Christians. Fought Muslims and pagans for the Roman Catholic Church. 1100-1200 C.E. 20 Baltics
Hospitallers Order of religious military Christians. Fought Muslims and pagans for the Roman Catholic Church. 1100-1200 C.E. 20 Baltics
Teutonic Knights Order of religious military Christians. Fought Muslims and pagans for the Roman Catholic Church. 1100-1200 C.E. 20 Baltics
Robert Guiscard Norman Christian who fought for Sicily. Conquered Sicily from Muslim holders from the tenth century. 1090 C.E. 20 Sicily
Reconquista The recapturing of Spain from the Muslims. A small Christian state in Catalonia captured most of Spain from Muslims in less than a century. 1150 C.E. 20 Iberian Peninsula
Pope Urban II Pope in the twelfth century of the Roman Catholic Christians. Launched crusades to capture Jerusalem 1095 C.E. 20 Europe
First Crusade French and Normans captured Jerusalem from the Muslims. Pope had control of Jerusalem until Saladin captured it in 1187 C.E. 1096-1099 C.E. 20 Jerusalem
Peter the Hermit Supported Pope Urban II's launching of the crusades. Organized a small, untrained army to capture Jerusalem. 1095 C.E. 20 Palestine
Created by: unique on 2008-04-16



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