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AP World History

Valhalla High School Bentley AP World Ch. 18

TermDefinitionSignificanceTime PeriodChapterRegion
Tamerlane "Lame Conquerer" Turkish conquerer, leader of a Turkish tribe that expanded to empire after series of conquests. Tamerlane modeled his empire after Chinggis Khan built a Central Asian empire around Persia, very powerful, deeply influenced Mughal empire, Safavid empire, and Ottoman empire late fourteenth century, early fifteenth 18 Central Asia, Persia
paper money paper that's used to represent bullion Ilkhan makes people accept it for payments of debt to help the government's financial problems early 1290's A.D 18 Persia, Mongols
Black Death epidemic of the bubonic plague, nicknamed "Black Death" destroyed several empires socially and economically in Eurasia (kills 1/2 + population, no one working, economy down) 1330's AD--1340's AD 18, also discussed in 22 South West China, Central Asia, South West Asia, Europe
Josef Stalin leader of Soviet Union moved Mongols to other parts of Soviet Union by force which gave Mongols sense of lost identity mid twentieth century AD 18 Crimean peninsula
Samarkand the imperial capital Tamerlane built for his empire in Persia magnificant and rich, where Tamerlane was buried, basis for many of his military campaigns official in 1370's AD 18 North East Persia
Sultan Mehmed II "Mehmed the Conquerer" sultan of Ottomans conquered Byzantine capital of Constantinople and renamed Istanbul; created Istanbul 1453 AD 18 Balkan region
Istanbul used to be Constantinople, new capital for Ottomans base for military campaigns which helped Ottomans expand over Greece and Balkan region; extend rule and power 14553-1480's AD 18 Balkan region
Ilkhan Ghazan Ilkhan of Mongols in Persia tried to establish paper money system but it failed and the regime went into a steep decline soon after his death 1304 AD 18 Persia
Osman founder of the magnficant Ottoman empire establishes a powerful and huge empire that lasts until the 20th century; leader of several military campaigns early 1300's 18 North West Anatolia
Ottoman empire Nomadic Turk empire founded by Osman very large and long lasting empire; because of it historians know much more about nomads; empire of many famous leaders (Sultan Mehmed II) and conquests (Constantinople); most powerful empire in Balkhan penn.; take over Byzantine empire 14th century-20th century 18 Anatolia, Balkan penninsula
Kamikaze The Japanese "divine winds." The typhoons destoyed 4,500 Mongol vessels and thwarted Khubilai's plan to conquer Japan overseas. 1274 and 1281 18 Southern China and Japan
The Golden Horde A group of Khubilai's brothers and cousins who controlled Russia. Khubilai's brother, Hulegu, toppled the Abbasid empire and established the Mongol ilkhanate in Persia. Also, the Mongol khans decended from the Golden Horde maintained hegemony in Russia until the fifteenth century. 1237 to 1241 18 Russia
Khubilai Khan Chinggis Khan's Grandson who ruled the Mongol empire from 1264 to 1294. Khubilai extended mongol rule to all of China, where he established the Yuan dynasty, and Kubilai promoted religious tolerance in his empire. 1264 to 1294 18 Centeral and Eastern Asia
Chinggis Khan "universal ruler" Established the Mongol empire Chinggis Khan had forged powerful alliances between various Mongol tribes that built the largest empire te world has ever known. From 1206 to 1227 18 Nothern and Centeral Eurasia
Marco Polo A Venetian traveler who lived in Kubilai Khan's court for almost twenty years. Polo's notes provided a valuable source of information about the Mongol age. The mid 1200's 18 Northern and Central Eurasia
Lamalist Buddhism A religious diffusion of Buddhism and native Mongolian cults. Lamalist Buddhism was popular among the Mongol ruling elite and Lamalist Buddhits rulers recognized the Mongols as legitimate rulers and were in the Mongols favor. Mid 1200's 18 Eastern Asia
Mongol trade Mongols worked to secure trade routes and ensure safety of merchants passing through their territories Long-distance travel became much less risky than earlier times and merchants increased their commercial investments. Distant lands became directly linked for the first time. 13th and 14th centuries C.E 18 Eurasia
Yurts Tents used by nomadic Turkish and Mongol tribes. Showed a hint of civilization within Nomadic societies. 1000 C.E. 18 Asia
Saljuq Turks Turkish tribe that gained control over the Abbasid empire and fought with the Byzantine empire. Developed most of the early/main ideas of the later Turkish groups. 8th-10th centuries C.E. 18,13 Asia,Byzantium,Anatolia
Ghaznavid Turks Turkish tribe under Mahmud of Ghazni who moved into northern India in the eleventh century and began a period of greater Islamic influence in India. Became the strongest groups of nomadic Turks. 11th century C.E. 18 Asia (India), Byzantium, Anatolia
AsiaSultanate of Delhi Islamic state in northern India established by Mahmud's successors in 1206 C.E. that began to establish the presence of Islam on the Indian subcontinent. Formulated plans to engage in complete control of India and southern Asia. 12th cenrury C.E. 18 Asia
Mahmud of Ghazni Leader of Ghaznavid Turks; lead raids across northern India Accelerated the Ghaznavid rise to power. 11th century C.E. 18 Asia
Mongols Violent nomads who pillaged their way across Asia. Lead to the destruction of multiple Asian empires. 13th century C.E. 18 Asia
Temujin Unified the Mongol tribes. Became leader of Mongols; later called Chinggis (Ghenghis) Khan. 11th-12th century C.E. 18 Asia
Karakorum a Mongolian capital created by Chinggis Khan; modern day Har Horin This served as a command center of Chenggis Khan's empire and symbolized a source of Mongol authority superior to the clan or tribe 13th century C.E 18 North Asia
Mongol Political Organization Chenggis Khan chose high military and political officials not on the basis of kinship or tribal status, but because of their talents or loyalty towards him. Very powerful, yet small army. Policies created a Mongol state which was much more powerful than any nomadic federation and also had less conflicts between clans and tribes 13th century C.E 18 Mongol Empire
Khwarazm shah successor to the Saljuqs who ruled Afghanistan and Persia The shah despised the Mongols and ordered officials to murder Chinggis Khan. Chinggis seeked revenge and completely shattered his army as well as the land leaving the shah unable to rebuild. Early 13th century C.E 18 Persia
Khanbaliq Mongols had captured the Jurchen capital and under the new name of Khanbaliq, it served as the Mongol capital in China. Gave Mongols advantage to establish large control in northern China Early 13th century C.E 18 China
Heirs of Chinggis Khan the heirs of Chinggis Khan divided his vast realm of into four regional empires:the Great Khan, the Golden Horde, the Khanate of Chagatai, and the Khanate of Persia which disappeared within a century because of their conflicts Mongol attempt to design a more permanent administration, though, it did bring societies of Eurasia into closer contact than ever before. 13th and 14th centuries C.E 18 Eurasia
Mongol Arms Mongol forces relied on outstanding equestrian skills Mongol horsemen were among the most mobile forces in the premodern world who suprised their enemy to either spare or destroy lives 13th century C.E 18 Eurasia
qanat delicate irrigation system that sustained agriculture in the arid region of Persia which were destroyed by Mongols resulted in a severely reduced agricultural production and contributed to the devastation of the land so it couldn't recover. 13th century C.E 18 Persia
Mongol Rule in Persia the Mongols allowed the Persians to administer the ilkhanate as long as they delivered tax receipts and maintained order. The mongols absorbed into Persian society by observing shamanism converting to Islam, and becoming tolerant of other religions. Late 13th century C.E 18 Persia
Mongol Rule in China did not allow intermarriage between Mongols and Chinese or to learn Mongol language. Mongols extracted as much revenue as possible. They brought foreign administrators to China and tolerated all cultural and religios traditions. Many Mongol ruling elite became enchanted with the Lamaist school of Buddhism. Late 13th century C.E 18 China
Chabi Khubilai Khan's favorite wife who was a Nestorian Christian. This symbolized that the Great Khan was tolerant of other religions. Late 13th century C.E 18 Khanate of the Great Khan
Eurasian Integration Since there was limited numbers of specialized workers, the Mongols resettled allies and conquered peoples to where they could best make use of their services. This helped administer Mongol affairs and also supplied them with talent like soldiers, secretaries, etc. Late 13th century C,E 18 Eurasia
Collapse of the Ilkhanate excessive spending strained the treasury, and overexploitation of the peasantry led to reduced revenues. Factional struggles plagued the Mongol leadership, and in 1304, Ilkhan Ghazan died. The last of the Mongol rulers died without an heir and collapsed. Late 13th century-Early 14th century C.E 18 Persia
Created by: Team Incredible on 2008-04-16



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