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Praxis 2 PLT

Praxis 2 PLT Grades 5-9

(Piaget) The ability to take in new info. and experiences and incorporate them into our existing ideas is called? (see small furry animal and call it a dog) Assimilation
(Piaget) The ability to change or alter existing schemas in light of new information is called? (see bigger furry animal and realize dogs come in different sizes) Accommodation
What is the management of thinking called? (know what we know and don't know) Metacognition
1. connecting new to old knowledge 2. selecting thinking strategies deliberately and 3. planning, monitoring and evaluating thinking processes are 3 basic stages of ? Metacognition
What allows us to integrate knowledge in ways by linking traits and facts so that the details of reality are accurately represented in our minds is called ? Schemata
Preconventional, Conventional and Post-conventional are knowns as the 3 stages of Development by who? Lawrence Kohlberg
The IDEA legislation that states all students in a school, regardless of strengths or weakness in any area, become part of the school community is known as ? (what is the word?) Inclusion
What is the educational method that includes many different kinds of learners in the SAME classroom rather than separating students according to their learning disabilities is called? Mainstreaming
What kind of environment is defined as the educational setting where a child with disabilities can receive a free appropriate public education designed to meet his needs while in a regular classroom called? Least Restrictive Environment
When consequences (good or bad) influence behavior it is called? Reinforcement
Which 3 people were advocates of Behaviorism (where learners are viewed as passive responders to outside stimuli)? 1. Watson 2. B.F. Skinner 3. Pavlov
What is the theory by Noam Chomsky that replaced behaviorism in the 1950's as the dominant paradigm? (child's actions are consequences of his thoughts) Cognitivism
Sensory-motor, Pre-operational, Concrete Operational and Formal Operational are stages of Cognitive Development by who? Jean Piaget
In Erikson's 8 Stages of Human Development which stage is trust versus mistrust? (feeding and other physical needs) Stage 1 Infancy
In Erikson's 8 Stages of Human Development which stage is autonomy versus doubt? (toilet training) Stage 2 Toddler
In Erikson's 8 Stages of Human Development which stage is Iniative versus guilt? (independence) Stage 3 Early Childhood
In Erikson's 8 Stages of Human Development which stage is competence versus inferiority? (school) Stage 4 Elementary and Middle School (age 6-12)
In Erikson's 8 Stages of Human Development which stage is identity versus role confusion? (sense of identity) Stage 5 Adolescence (age 12-18)
In Erikson's 8 Stages of Human Development which stage is intimacy versus isolation? (intimate relationships) Stage 6 Young Adulthood (age 19-40)
In Erikson's 8 Stages of Human Development which stage is generatively versus stagnation? (supporting next generation) Stage 7 Middle Adulthood (age 40-65)
In Erikson's 8 Stages of Human Development which stage is integrity versus despair? (reflection and acceptance) Stage 8 Late Adulthood (age 65-death)
What type of assessment is used to provide teachers with a student's prior knowledge and misconceptions before beginning a learning activity? Diagnostic Assessments
What 3 things does an advanced organizer or diagnostic assessment do? 1. identifies what we already know 2. activates current knowledge 3. it is a plan with the end in mind.
What are some examples of advanced organizers? 1. KLW chart 2. 4 square 3. sort/predict 4. Venn diagram 5.brainstorm/categorize 6. concept mapping
What is the theory called that poses there are 7 ways people understand the world around them? Multiple Intelligence theory
Who is the father of the Multiple Intelligence theory? Howard Gardener
What are Gardener's 7 Multiple Intelligences? 1.Logical 2.Linguistic 3.Visual/spatial 4.Body/kinesthetic 5.Musical/rhythmic 6.Interpersonal 7.Intrapersonal
What type of small group learning maximizes one's own learning as well as other children's learning at the same time called? Cooperative Learning
What are some valuable teaching methods one could use in lesson planning? (there are 5) 1.demonstration 2.discovery learning (PBL) 3.thematic approach 4.simulation and 5.games
What type of education promotes individuality, free activity, and learning through experiences? Progressive Education
Who is known for Progressive Education and learning through experience model? John Dewey
What is it called when learners construct new ideas or concepts based on knowledge, past experience,and their environment? (Bruner) Constructivism
What is the type of LEARNING that features teaching methods that enable students to discover information by themselves called? Discovery Learning
Who came up with both Discovery Learning and Constructivism? Jerome Bruner
What is the theory called where children learn by observing others? Social Learning theory
Who created the Social Learning theory? Albert Bandera
1.Resources 2. a compelling task 3. templates/guidelines 4. guidance on the development of cognitive and social skill are all examples of what kind of support? Scaffolding
What theory is supported by Piaget, Montessori and Vygotsky? (Jerome Bruner) Constructivist Theory
What theory, by Arnold Gessell, supports that development is a biological process that occurs automatically in predictable, sequential stages over time? (as you grow up) Maturationist Theory
What type of instruction involves material presented in an authentic event to be examined from multiple perspectives in order to anchor the information called ? Anchored Instruction
Maslow (1954) stated that human motivation is based on people seeking fulfilment and change through personal growth depicted in a hierarchial pyramid is known as? Hierarchy of Needs
Psychologist Howard Gardner suggests that people possess multiple intelligences rather than one single mental ability. This theory is called? Multiple Intelligence Theory
The ability to communicate effectively with other people and to be able to develop relationships is called which type of intelligence? INTERpersonal Intelligence
The ability to understand one's own emotions, motivations, inner states of being and self- reflection is called what type of intelligence? INTRApersonal Intelligence
What are the 3 themes of social development theory? 1.social interaction is fundament to cognitive development 2.MKO (More Knowledgeable Others) people who know more/higher ability level mentor learner 3. Zone of Proximal Development- students are challenged, but not frustrated.
In this the theory Vygotsky argues that social interaction precedes development; conscious and cognition are end products of socialization and social behavior is one of the foundations of costructivism is called? Social Development Theory
Jean Piaget's theory where kids learn through actively constructing knowledge through hands-on experience in stages is called? Stages of Cognitive Development
Who created Project Based Learning (PBL), defined as instruction relating questions and technology relative to students everyday lives to classroom projects. Students take a problem and apply it to real life situations... Cleaning up the Gulf oil spill. John Dewey
What is Bandura's theory called where the world and a person's behavior cause each other rather than behaviorism that states one's environment causes one's behavior . Reciprocal Determination
Collective knowledge built in the mind based on conclusions drawn from our experiences is called? (Piaget's processes of Assimilation and Accommodation) Schema
What is the teaching and learning method called where many areas of curriculum are integrated and connected within a theme? (Pumpkin unit) Thematic Approach instruction method
What is the type of reasoning called where students form specific hypothesis, test them, and then draw a generalized conclusion called? Deductive Reasoning
What is the type of reasoning called where students make a broad generalization from specific observations (bottom up reasoning)? Inductive Reasoning
In operant conditioning, a response that is reinforced (reward) only after a specific number of times is called? A fixed-ratio schedule
What type of problem solving recognizes a problem as a "disguised" version of an old problem for which one already has a solution called? schema-driven problem solving
What is it called when a general strategy is used in attempting to solve problems (life, career, relationships, etc.)? heuristic
The process by which a student gradually reaches independent learning is called? (I do-you watch, I do-you help, you do- I help, you do- I watch.) Gradual Release of Responsibility
According to the assertive discipline model, which of the following should be a teacher's initial response to an incident of misbehavior? a)ID behavior/state correct behavior b) praise other's good behavior c) make eye contact; use non verbal cues A) identify bad behavior and state expected behavior
Explaining to students what they will be learning and why it is important is one of the elements of a)scaffolding b)modeling c)guided thinking d) differentiated instruction A) scaffolding
Which of the following techniques has greatest potential to improve thoughtful responses/wider participation? a) keep student participation chart b) peer tutoring c) longer wait time in question&response d) give verbal/visual clues to good responses C) longer wait time in between question and response
A seasoned English teacher wants to learn new pedagogy, which one is best? a)school district workshop on brain based learning b)emotional intelligence workshop c) research articles focused on reading comprehension d)college course C) Research articles focused on reading comprehension
Which should not be in the initial stages of a learning contract? a) contract timeline b) list of learning resources c) activity to complete contract d) learning objectives each student must meet C) the activity each student must do to complete contract
A student who uses a wheelchair for mobility is eligible for special ed a) automatically b)if already protected by 504 plan c) 1 major life area is affected d) if academic performance is affected as a result D) if academic performance is affected as a result
In keeping learning logs, students identify which strategies help the most. This is known as a)social learning b)metacognition c)transfer d)discovery learning B) Metacognition
Invent new character, compose new ending, write review and defend actions of main character all a)require high level thinking b)different instruction high/low levels of thinking c)appeal to students visual auditory kinethetic d)observable, not measure A) require use of high levels of thinking
What is the cognitive process that involves combining new information to develop new understanding, concepts and ideas called? creative thinking
The primary purpose of thematic instruction is to encourage students to do what? To encourage students to take responsibility for their learning process.
Which assessments evaluates a student's performance as it compares to a larger sample of students? a) Norm-referenced b)summative c)aptitude d)diagnostic A) Norm-referenced
According to BF Skinner, which of the following is neg. reinforcement? a) reward= desired behavior increases b) reward=undesirable behavior increases c)sanction imposed=undesired behavior extinguished d) sanction removed=desireable behavior increases D) sanction is removed= desireable behavior increases (like rat in cage bumping into lever that turns of electric current. Remove bad thing to increase desired behavior)
According to Social Learning theory, which answer is most likely to result in student success? a) if you learn spelling rules you'll be a better speller b) tell how many spelling rules you know c) identify words you don't know how to spell A) If you learn the rules you will be a better speller (external stimuli influenced desire behavior).
What type of research used to look for relationships between variables is known as? Correlational study
What type of research used conducted in an artificial setting in the context of basic research is called? Experimental Research
What type of research that is used to solve an immediate problem while actively participating in an organization is called? Action Research
What type of research is used to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon being studied is called? Descriptive Research
Created by: Krista Fulbright