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Ast 111N_ch3

QuestionAnswer
Which of the following is not true about scientific progress? Science advances only through the scientific method.
When Einstein’s theory of gravity (general relativity) gained acceptance, it demonstrated that Newton’s theory had been incomplete.
Which of the following is not true about a scientific theory? A theory is essentially an educated guess.
ASuppose the planet Uranus were much brighter in the sky, so that it was as easily visible to the naked eye as Jupiter or Saturn. Which one of the following statements would most likely be true in that case? A wk would have 8 days instead of 7.
How does a 12-month lunar calendar differ from our 12-month solar calendar? It has about 11 fewer days. This is true because the lunar cycle averages about 29.5 days, so 12 of these cycles makes about 354 days, or 11 days short of our 365-day solar year.
Which of the following best describes a set of conditions under which archaeoastronomers would conclude that an ancient structure was used for astronomical purposes? Which of the following best describes a set of conditions under which archaeoastronomers would conclude that an ancient structure was used for astronomical purposes?
How did the Ptolemaic model explain the apparent retrograde motion of the planets? The planets moved along small circles that moved on larger circles around the Earth.
When Copernicus first created his Sun-centered model of the universe, it did not lead to substantially better predictions of planetary positions than the Ptolemaic model. Why not? Copernicus used perfect circles for the orbits of the planets.
Earth is farthest from the Sun in July and closest to the Sun in January. During which Northern Hemisphere season is Earth moving fastest in its orbit? Winter
According to Kepler's third law (p2 = a3), how does a planet's mass affect its orbit around the Sun? A planet's mass has no effect on its orbit around the Sun.
All the following statements are true. Which one follows directly from Kepler's third law (p2 = a3)? Venus orbits the Sun at a slower average speed than Mercury.
Suppose a comet orbits the Sun on a highly eccentric orbit with an average (semimajor axis) distance of 1 AU. How long does it take to complete each orbit, and how do we know? 1 year, which we know from Kepler's third law.
Galileo challenged the idea that objects in the heavens were perfect by _________. observing sunspots on the Sun and mountains on the Moon
Galileo observed all of the following. Which observation offered direct proof of a planet orbiting the Sun? phases of Venus
Which of the following is not consistent with the major hallmarks of science? Science consists of proven theories that are understood to be true explanations of reality.
Which of the following is not part of a good scientific theory? A scientific theory cannot be accepted until it has been proven true beyond all doubt.
Only one of the statements below uses the term theory in its correct, scientific sense. Which one? Einstein's theory of relativity has been tested and verified thousands of times.
Imagine for a moment that despite all the evidence, Earth actually is not rotating and orbiting the Sun. Which of these hypothetical observations (none of them are real) would be inconsistent with our Sun-centered view of the solar system? We discover a small planet beyond Saturn that rises in the west and sets in the east each day.
n Ptolemy’s Earth-centered model for the solar system (not shown), Venus’s phase is never full as viewed from Earth because it always lies between Earth and the Sun. In reality, as Galileo first recognized, Venus is __________. full whenever it is on the opposite side of the Sun from Earth, although we cannot see the full Venus because it is close to the Sun in the sky
Imagine that Venus is in its full phase today. If we could see it, at what time would the full Venus be highest in the sky? at noon
When would a new Venus be highest in the sky? at noon
When would you expect to see Venus high in the sky at midnight? never
Which one provides evidence that Venus orbits the Sun and not Earth? We sometimes see gibbous (nearly but not quite full) Venus.
Created by: zemca on 2013-07-18



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