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Ch. 24

Bacterial Diseases of the Respiratory Tract

Acute pharyngitis (strep sore throat), impetigo, necrotizing fasciitis(flesh eating bacteria of the lay press), 2 hypersensitivity reactions--post-strptococcal states--sequuelae
Alveoli tiny air sacs of lungs
C carbohydrate layer in cell envelope which humans produce Abs--Abs not protective--differ among various species and have diagnostic value
Cloaking devices allow bacteria to hide from our immune system
Cold agglutinins apparently antibodies that mycoplasma induces in pt--unusual antibodies will agglutinate rbc's when stored in cold
Diphtheria caused by diphtherotoxin--inhibits 80S ribosomes of host--affects heart and nervous system--can cause death--pseudomembrane forms in pharynx of pt--causes asphyxiation
Diphtherotoxin corynebacterium diphtheriae
Hib capsular polysaccharide vaccine
Hib conjugate induces a memory response because of the protein so that immunity becomes long-lived and the number of disease cases plummeted
Immune complexes in rheumatic fever these complexes form and result in permanent kidney damage due to glomerulonephritis--often termed lumpy-bumpy glomerulonephritis
isoniazid reserved for TB treatment, used widely with other ABTs including ethambutol, rifampinm and streptomycin
Meningitis inflammation of meninges--organisms spread via resp. routes--invade from throat to spinal column passing through host cells--sx, stiff neck with fever and vomiting--babies and young children--tx more than one drug initiated asap--family/workers tx
Meningococcus gram-negative diplococcus, in clinical setting--highly invasive--inf. med. emergency--organism identified and iv ABT immediately--spinal tap to identify--aggressive penicillin tx
Menomune vaccine to treat meningococcus--available for 4 types of polysaccharide capsule--not type B--most common type--poorly immunogenic
MRTB multiply resistant TB--appearing ever-increasing numbers--people often die in spite of ABTs
Obligate intracellular pathogens can't produce own ATP--must acquire from host cell
Pertussis caused by bordetella pertussis--whooping cough--mainly afflicts young children--whoop is powerful--subconjunctival hemorrhaging occurs--whole-cell vaccine--stopped most deaths--hypersensitivity reactions resulted in rare deaths
Pneumonia condition of lungs--caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, physical particulates(tobacco)--alveoli damaged/filled with foreign matter--can't transport O2 into bloodstream and remove carbon dioxide
Pneumovax vaccine--contains 23 of most common polysaccharide types for use in the at risk population--repeating polysaccharide structure-response is T cell independent, lasts about 5 yrs.
PPD purified protein derivative--mantoux/tine test--tubercular antigens injected just below skin surface--hard raised area will result in 24/48 hrs if positive--active TB dx by x-ray--organism requires about 6 wks to culture
Quellung test Ab test--based on anticapsular Abs--distinguishes capsular types--30-70% of carriers of organism and serve as reservoir for spread
Rheumatic fever heart valve and joint damage--occurs several weeks after aute disease immune hypersensitivity after bacteria are eliinated--cause is likely due to production of some Abs to strep pyogens--cross react with heart tissue
Rusty sputum another sgn of infection due to bleeding in lungs--fluid and great numbers of phagocytes allow palpitation of infected area
Scarlet fever strep pyogenes produces 2 streptolysins--damage cell membranes including heart and WBCs--some strains secrete an erythrotoxin is the cause of rash
Streptolysins (SLO and SLS) damage cell membranes including those of the heart and WBCs
Subacute endocarditis group A strp caused damage to heart valves via toxins(do not grow on heart tissue)--organisms attach to and grow on damaged valve tissue--further damaging valves
Tubercles organisms walled off into hard foci in lung tissue--visible by x-ray
Tuberculosis disease caused by M tuerculosis--TB--invasion of lung accompanied by tissue destruction--spread via resp. droplets--sx: fever, night sweats, coughing and wasting--tx with triple ABT for 6 mos. to 2 yrs.
Viridans strep group of streptococci--not a genus name--organisms not usually speciated--humans carry organisms in mouths/resp tracts--no problems in normal individuals--people with heart damage, special risk--
Created by: heatherlvn