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SHMS 7th Grade Science Powertime Vocab 4

Evolution change in the gene pool of a population from generation to generation by such processes as mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift.
Adaptation any alteration in the structure or function of an organism or any of its parts that results from natural selection and by which the organism becomes better fitted to survive and multiply in its environment.
natural selection the process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures, as predators,changes in climate, or competition for food or mates, will tend to survive and reproduce in greater numbers than others
Fossil the preserved remains, trace, or imprint of an ancient organism.
Charles Darwin a naturalist that study finches in the Galapogos Islands and is given credit for developing the theory of evolution.
Survival of the Fittest the name given by Darwin to the concept that organisms best adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and pass on their traits to offspring.
Generation group of genetically related organisms constituting a single step in the line of descent
Species the lowest, or most specific, level of classification; a group of similar individuals that can breed to produce fertile offspring.
Inheritance attributes acquired via biological heredity from the parents
Sedimentary rock a type of rock formed when rock particles build up over time and turn into rock as a result of pressure and heat. (Most fossils are found in this type of rock.)
Artificial selection the process used in selective breeding.
Selective breeding the process through which humans use naturally occurring genetic patterns to pass desired traits on to generations.
Fossil record refers to all fossils that have been found since the study of fossils began.
Index fossils fossils recognized as unique to certain time periods (mark the end of an era or the beginning of a new era.)
Hypothesis an educated explanation for a problem that has been researched.
Mutations are random changes in DNA that act as another way organisms evolve.
Cladogram a graphical tool scientists use to show the relatedness of organisms. (can be called a branching tree diagram as well.)
Gene flow is the change in the occurrence of genes in a population.
Genetic drift provides random changes in the occurrence of genes through chance events.
Bottlenecking – this occurs when a large number of the population is killed because of disease, starvation, or natural disaster. It reduces the large population to a few individuals; and the genes of subsequent generations become very similar.
Created by: hbogue