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SHMS 7th Grade Science Powertime Vocab 2

Heredity passing, or capable of passing, naturally from parent to offspring through the genes: Blue eyes are hereditary in our family.
Gene a basic unit of hereditary information. It refers to a specific segment of DNA that influences a particular trait or group of traits.
Homozygous an organism that contains two of the same alleles for a trait (purebred)
Heterozygous an organism that contains two different alleles for a trait (hybrid)
Genotype the genetic makeup of an organism (set of alleles present).
Phenotype the observable traits of an organism that result from its genotype.
Dominant Allele the trait produced by this type of allele "masks" the trait produced by the recessive allele.
Recessive Allele the trait produced by this type of allele gets "masked" by the trait produced by the dominant allele.
Trait a characteristic of an organism (e.g., hair color).
Chromosome A structure in all living cells that consists of a single molecule of DNA bonded to various proteins and that carries the genes determining heredity. A molecule of DNA is "packaged" and carried by this larger molecule.
Asexual Reproduction results in offspring that are identical to the single parent. In this type of reproduction, new individuals are a product of mitosis. The parent and the offspring have identical genetic material.
Sexual Reproduction is the donation of a gamete (a sex cell) by each parent. The resulting zygote (cell that results from the process of fertilization) will have characteristics of each of the contributing parents.
Conjugation the process in which one bacterium transfers genetic material to another bacterium. (asexual reproduction that is similar to sexual reproduction.)
Zygote the fertilized egg that is formed from the union of the sperm and egg cells.
Punnett square is used to express the possible genotypes which will determine the phenotype of an individual.
Hybrid an organism that has two different alleles for a specific trait. (heterozygous)
Selective breeding used by humans to pass along desired traits to future generations. In this way, humans can control many physical characteristics of an organism, from color to shape to size.
Genetic engineering is also used to produce organisms with desired characteristics. This is completed in a laboratory procedure in which genes from one organism are inserted into another.
Offspring an organism produce from two parents, in which 50% of the genes came from one parent (mom) and 50% of the genes came from the other parent (dad).
Purebred an organism that has two identical alleles for a specific trait. (homozygous)
Created by: hbogue