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Ch. 23 vocabulary

Acquired Immunity

Active immunization (active vaccination) child given weakened (attenuated)/killed viral inject. given to children to induce disease to immune system--provides lifelong immunity
Agglutination all antibody molecules--2 or more binding sites--can cross-link bacteria/other microbes together--2nd antibody can cross-link 3rd cell and so on--each microbe has many antigens on surface--large aggregates of microbes can be formed
Allergens substance that provokes an allergic response by inducing IgE production
Allergic sensitivity to specific antigens (Ags) such as ragweed, bee venom, strawberries, etc.--produce large quantities of IgE when exposed to these Ags
Anaphylactic hypersensitivity type 1 reaction (IgE-mediated hypersensitivity) allergic or anaphylactic hypersensitivity where IgE molecules bound to basophils and mast cells bind allergens, which causes release of histamine and other potent active chemicals
Anaphylactic shock when histamine is released throughout the body (systemically)--blood pressure can drop precipitously and death occur in minutes
Antibody (Ab) (ab) protein molecule of the immune system that binds Ags
Antigen-presenting cell (APC) typically macrophages, dendritic cells, or other B cells
Antigens (Ag) usually proteins or polysaccharides--recognized by the body as foreign matter
Atopic people with high levels of IgE with resultant allergies
B lymphocytes (B cell) antibody-producing cells
Cell-mediated immunity immunity conferred by white blood cells, especially T cells--ridding the body of infected human cells, particularly virally infected cells
Clonal deletion when B and T cells recognize self as Ags early in a person''s life, these cells are deleted.
Complement fixation When IgG or IgM bind to an Ag--expose a site in Fc region--initiates binding of complement proteins
Constant region rest of the chains--including the lower 2/3 of the Fab regions
Cytotoxic T cells (Tc) express CD8 protein on the surface--kill virally infected cells and may cause tissue graft rejection
Degranulate activated cells that release histamine and other chemicals that cause allergic reactions, such as hay fever and anaphylactic shock--may occur within one to fifteen minutes
Delayed hypersensitivity Type IV hypersensitivity (cell-mediated immunity reaction)--mediated by immne cells--no Abs involved--most distruction due to Tc cells--takes 1-2 days--cells migrate from blood stream to affected tissues before damage is observed
Epitope recognized amino acid--antibodies may recognize just a single amino acid in a protein
Fragment antigen binding (Fab) upper fragments of antibody--uppermost parts contain actual Ag binding sites
Globulin globular, or roundish, (folded into a ball) protein
Haptens small chemicals that fit into the antibody-binding site
Histamine causes an allergic reaction
Humoral immunity antibodies stay in the fluid--(old name for body fluids was humors)--antibody-mediated immunity
Immediate hypersensitivity IgE antibodies are already bound before Type I hypersensitivity occurs, it occurs immediately (usually in several minutes)
Immune complex diseases complexes fix complement, including C3b, recruits phagocytes that end updestroying complexes along with surrounding host tissue--frequent cause of serious damage
Immunization general process of increasing a specific type of body's immune capability to a living or inanimate Ag.
Immunogen stimulating antigen--complex as in a protein
Immunoglobulin (Ig) name given to antibody proteins as they have been isolated from the blood
Inducibility contact with foreign material stimulates immunity
Interleukins a subset of cytokines that are made by leukocytes
Isoagglutinins naturally occurring antibodies
Lymphocytes subset of leukocytes--responsible for acquired immunity by specifically recognizing foreign Ags.--originate in the bone marrow
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein receptors found in 2 forms--MHC-1--found on all cells (exept RBCs)--MCHII--found primarilly on macrophages and B cells
Mediators chemicals released from granules--allergy and anaphylaxis
Memory subsequent exposure results in a faster and greater response to the identical foreign material
Memory cells daughter cells of B lymphocytes--produces at the same time remain essentially identical to first B cell, now are large numbers
Monoclonal antibodies every cell in a population secretes exact same antibody--came from one clone or cell--homogeneous and recognizes only a single epotpe
Nonself foreign Ags
Opsonization when IgG binds to antigens, Fc portion of antibody changes configuration such that a specific receptor on the phagocytes binds them tightly--most efficient when the Ag contains many bound Ab molecules
Passive immunization type of immunization but not vaccination--transfer specific antibodies from one individual to another suspected of having recent exposure to same microbe--immunity last only a few months as transferred IgG is degraded
Perforin toxic protein secreted by Tc cells as they recognize specific epitopes on surface of infected cells--opens channels/holes in infected cells and kills them to discontinue production of microbes
Plasma cells resultant daughter cells of B lymphocytes--start secreting antibodies of same type that originally bound the Ag
Polyclonal antibodies usually result naturally as from a vaccination with measles virus
Precipitate smal Ab-Ag complexes can be precipitated in lab by placing samples in citrifuge and precipitates the aggregates at the bottom of the tube--aggregate at tube bottom called a pellet/precipitate
Receptors serface proteins--recognize or are recognized by ohter cells--called MHC
Secondary antibody binds to human antibodies--usually made in a goat, which willl recognize human antibodies as foreign--contains linked enzyme for ELISA assay--positive in western blot analysis--reacts with a single, specific protein that will not show false positives
Self our own Ags
Sensitization early exposures that lead to IgE binking to cells--person becomes sensitive to that particular allergen
Serum sickness pt's immune system responds in 7-10 days of horse antibodies by making its own antibodies--severe immune response would occur with gen. fever and inflammation of blood vessels and organs
Specificity resultant immunity recognizes only the stimulatory agent
T cell receptor T lymphocytes have a specific surface receptor for recognizing foreign antigens--not antibody molecules--recognize many different antigens
T helper cells (Th) express another protein on their surgaces--called CD4--marker, like a flag--used to identify cell
T lymphocytes (T cell)--leaves bone marrow and travels to thymus for maturation
T suppressor cells (Ts) (cytotoxic T (Tc)) T cells that express CD8 protein on the surface--dampen an immune proliferation response so that it stops when an adequate level is reached
T-dependent response (T cell-dependent) antibody secreting plasma cells and memory B cells are both formed
T-independent response no Th cell involved--plasma cells are produced to make antibodies, no memory cells formed--responses do not yield long-term immunity
Tolerance to self Ags--occurs when new immune cells form--if new immune cells recognize self-Ags, they fail to mature and die
Vaccination stimulation of an immune response that protects against a specific infectious agent that lives
Variable region binding ends of the FAB (including the ends of light and heavy chains) highly variable in amino acid sequence--amino acid sequence varies from oneAb to another in this region--single individual can bind a million different epitopes
Weal and flare local skin lesion--red and raised--watery inside
Western blot analysis (blank)
Created by: heatherlvn