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Developmental L15


Alexander Pichuskin was a chessboard murderer and was a psychopath but not every murderer is a _________ psychopath
Is this a sociopath or a psychopath? "a person whose antisocial tendencies are due primarily to poor socialization" sociopath
Is this a sociopath or a psychopath? "a person whose antisocial behaviour results from a defect within themselves which make them harder to socialize" psychopath
What is a sociopath? a person whose antisocial tendencies are due primarily to poor socialization"
Psychopaths do not develop a c_______ or _________ feelings conscience, empathic
Which type of person finds it harder to socialize, sociopath or psychopath? psychopath
What is used to assess adult psychopathy? The PCL-R (the Revised Psychopathy Checklist)
To be classified as being a psychopath what do you need? Need 30+ score on PCL-R checklist by a clinician from both an interview and observations, and need to show two factors: affective factor (lack of empathy) and behavioural factor
What is a psychopath? "a person whose antisocial behaviour results from a defect within themselves which make them harder to socialize"
What is the correlation of the two factors: affective and behaviour factors that psychopaths must have? 0.5
What percentage of the population as a whole are psychopaths? 1%
What percentage of the prison population are psychopaths? 25-40%
New Zealand Maori have greater percentage of _________. But overal you dont need to be a certain ethnicity to be a psychopath, they are in every culture psychopath
Who view psychopaths as "empty inside, dead eyes, no spirit (all tika no pono)? Maori
Is psychopathy diagnosed in childhood? No
Who do we see early signs of psychopathy in? Juvenile Delinquents who set fires. cruel to animals, substance abuse, stealing, bullying etc.
What us an indirect measure of psychopathy? Delinquency in childhood
Because delinquency is an indirect measure of psychopathy they have used this idea to make a screening device called? The Psychopathy Screening Device (PSD) which looks to see if you have psychopathic tendencies and is a questionnaire that teachers use to rate the child
What is PSD? The Psychopathy Screening Devise which is a questionnaire for children that looks to see if you have psychopathic tendencies and is used by teachers to rate the child
What do the PCL-R and the PSD have in common? Both contain 20 items to rate or evaluate chid or adult on and both have a two-factor structure (1) affect (lack of remorse or empathy) and (2) behaviour
With the PSD the teacher rates the child as ____, ___________ and ___________ _____ for each of the __ items never, sometimes, definitely true, 20
The PSD's affect and behaviour factors are called what? Callous/unemotional factor (C/UN) and Impulsivity/conduct factor (I/CP)
Is delinquency a direct or indirect measure of delinquency? indirect
Which factor of the PSD is this and is it the affective or behavioural factor? "gets bored easily, acts without thinking, becomes angry when corrected" Impulsivity/conduct factor (I/CP), behavioural
Because the adult and the child questionnaire are so similar it shows how there are ____________ similarities between the child and the adult psychopaths behavioural
What one of the two factors psychopathy is especially related to long-term problems - is more likely to continue into adulthood? Affective factor so affective behaviour such as empathy is of the most concern to leading Psychopathy
Why is the PSD not a diagnostic? Because there is no objective threshold, instead it is only used to indicate tendencies that may develop into adult psychopathy and therefore help parents and teachers to try work towards fixing the child's tendencies early on.
What percentage of psychopaths are in the prison population? 25-40%
Which factor of the PSD is this and is it the affective or behavioural factor? "acts charming in ways that seem insincere, does not feel bad or guilty, is not concerned about the feelings of others" Callous/unemotional factor (C/IN) and is the affect factor
Which factor is of most concern to leading to Psychopathy and why? Affective factor because it is especially related to long term problems, more likely to continue into adulthood.
The PSD is not a diagnostic because there is no _______ _______, instead it is only used to ____ tendencies that may develop into adult psychopathy and therefore help parents and teachers work towards fixing the child's tendencies early on objective threshold, indicate
Psychopaths are _ times more likely to re-offend and _ times more likely to _______ re-offend 3,4,violently
A problem is that treatment is geared towards general criminals, not psychopaths. What results show this? Men who scored higher in psychopathy and did better in treatment were 3x as likely to reoffend and 5x as likely to subsequently commit serious offences than non-psychopathic sex offenders
Corrections research study was carried out in June 1999 to June 2000 and ____ parolled offenders who were released before 1995 were randomly selected. mean age 46 range between 32 and 81. What did they find? 87% of offences were violent ones with 33% being murders &ne xt common rapists. That there was greater # of people who had higher PCL-SV scores (psychopathy score) and that being psychopath is good predictor of re-offending & PCL-SV is good way to predict
From the Corrections research study what did they find out about the types of crimes psychopaths are arrested for? Greater number arrested for serious violent crimes such as assault, rape, kidnapping, sexual offences, robbery and use of weapons to assault and that there is far more violent re-offending (77.5%) than nonviolent reoffending (22.22%)
There is far more violent reoffending (___%) than non-violent reoffending (_____%) in psychopaths 77.5, 22.22
What was describe by the Corrections Department as "the biggest single initiative the department has undertaken to reduce reoffending"? An "integrated offender management (IOM) system
What is the idea behind the "integrated offender management (IOM) system? That all offenders are classified on reception into security and treatment categories, a sentence plan is developed and people suitable for treatment are directed into programmes which are consistent with their criminogenic needs
The "integrated offender management (IOM) system is like a _________? hospital, you go to hospital, you get diagnosed and you get treated
Is the IOM system working to reduce reoffending? No, if you look at rate of reoffending over years its actually increased
Why do psychopaths reoffend? - Is it because they have less fear of punishment? Write out the study by Hare that looks at this ....
Hare compared psychopathic group (scored ___ on Pd) and non psychopathic group (scored ___ on Pd).Looked at GSR (___) measurements on ___ hand as indicator of ___ & put shock electrode on finger of __ hand to estab. __ __ resistance & approp. shock level higher, low, galvanic skin response, right, left, resting skin resistance,
Hare then presented them with numbers 1-__ in a consecutive order and told them they would be given shock when number gets to _ so you would expect nervousness. Did __ presentations each number appearing for 3 seconds 1-12, 8, 5
What does IOM stand for? "Integrated offender management system
What were the results of Hare's study? Both groups were equal on mean resting skin conductance and intensity of shocks and that overall skin conductance increase but that this increase was lower for Pd group. So people who scored high on GSR did not respond to fear in same way (interesting)
PD stands for? Psychopathic deviant scale used in Hares study
What does GSR stand for and describe it. Galvanic skin response measurement and is an indicator of fear arousal as it measures the amount of electricity that your skin conducts from sweat so if you are nervous you conduct more electricity
In Hares study shock electrodes put on finger of left hand measured what? established resting skin resistance and appropriate shock level
Pd score is indicative of....? Psychopathy
GSR measures about of electricity that your skin conducts from _____. So the more you ______ the more you conduct electricity and the more nervous you are sweat x2
What is the other study about how psychopaths dont fear punishment that involves a maze task? Psychopaths dont learn laboratory maze task with punishment but they do learn easily when rewarded with money
Psychopath respond to maze task differently to people with what disorders? antisocial personality disorder or common criminals
Blair (1995) said that psychopaths have a deficit in VIM what does this stand for? Violence Inhibition Mechanism
When an attacking dog sees the other dog bare its throat what happens and why could this be? Attacking do back off because maybe they have empathy towards the other dog in distress
Humans distress cues involve displays of fear and ______ (and pain) sadness
What does VIM stand for? and what is it? Violence Inhibitory Mechanism, our basic emotion mechanism
What activates our VIM? Distress cues (fear ad sadness)
Talk through the processes that cause distress cues to activate VIM Distress cues (fear and sadness) lead to arousal -> arousal leads to withdrawal/inhibition of behaviour cos arousal is cognitively interpreted as guilt,remorse so stop attacking as doesnt feel good to cause pain/sadness -> then leads to empathy/sympathy
Every time we perform an act which hurts another person, the negative effect of witnessing our victimes resulting fear and sadness acts as an aversive ________. What does this related to? Activation of our VIM (violence inhibitory mechanism)
Describe the study that shows that VIM is important for moral behaviour development? 4.7 month olds changed their behaviour towards other child when other child had sad expression, burst into tears (back off) so shows they are morality developing
What are moral rules? Rules for the welfare and rights of others such as not hitting or hurting others.
What are conventional rues? Rules that are not morally wrong such as cross dressing, talking in class, not wearing all your clothes, swearing. People are normally ok with breaking conventional rules
Can delinquents distinguish between moral and conventional rules? No they can't
Children (delinquents) who are bad at attributing moral emotions to story characters are more likely to? cheat because they have less morality. So seems to be a relationship between their understanding of morality and their behaviour (cheating)
How did researchers test psychopaths form mental hospital and prisons on their false belief? Gave them story where captive tells army his army are in the mountains (when they really are in mountains) because he knows they will think hes lying and are therefore at sea. Results showed no dif. in false belief so dont have ToM deficits in this aspect
What are the two main differences between autism and psychopath? Autistic people have ToM deficits but psychopaths dont and Autistic people show physiological arousal to distress but psychopaths dont.
If you show a psychopath someone getting raped, they do not show distress so they dont have a working ________ ______ _________? violence inhibition mechanism (VIM)
The study that got evaluated children on PSD and got them to pick the dominant emotion on faces showed what? That only fear and sad sign. related to PSD and thus children psychopathic tendencies are less likely to recognise fearful and sad expression.
Children with psychopathic tendencies can recognise surprise, happiness, anger and disgust but not? fear and sadness
Because children with psychopathic tendencies cannot recognise fear and sadness but can still recognise happy, surprise, disgust and anger what does this mean? Means that these children DO NOT have a general deficit in recognising emotions/faces
In terms of antisocial behaviour, children with deficits in recognising fearful and sad expression are more likely to show? antisocial behaviour
Do psychopaths have ToM deficits in terms of false belief? Why? No because they performed around the same as non-psychopaths with the army story task
Child and adult psychopaths are not only deficient in recognising fearful and sad expression on faces but are also deficient in....? ...recognising VOCAL TONES of fear and sadness. This also shows lack in VIM
What study shows that children with high PSD dont respond to distress or threat? Compared high PSD with low PSD and Normal control children. Presented with pictures of distress, threat and neutral (plus anger). Measure skin conductance (level of arousal). Found that high PSD respond less to distress and threat (not anger/neutral).
The study that compared high and low PSD children with normal controls looking at wether psychopathic kids EXPERIENCE fea and sadness, found high PSD responded less to distress and threat but not less to neutral+anger. What does this mean? That its not due to general emotion/face difficulty but shows that theres a lack of empathy in psychopaths
What did Hare come up with? PCL
Are ADULT psychopaths worse of is there no difference in distinguishing between moral and conventional rules? Describe study Psychopaths (high on Hare's PCL) and non-psychopaths were given stories about moral and conventional rule breaking and asked to distinguish what would be worse in each. Psychopaths were significantly worse and didn't attribute guilt to characters in story
What does EBD stand for? Emotional Behavioural Difficulties
So study has found that ADULT psychopaths are worse at distinguishing moral and conventional rules attributing guilt to characters in story. What about child psychopaths? Similar results. Children (teenagers) with EBD) with high or low PSD were compared. High PSD found less moral/conventional distinction and less likely to refer to others welfare and less attribution of moral emotions (guilt AND sadness)
What is the difference between the adult and child studies on whether psychopathic children and adults can distinguish between moral and conventional rules? That the child study uses PSD which only gives TENDENCIES
The studies on adult and child psychopathy and moral and convention rules disinctions, argues that there is a __________ of VIM deficits continuum
Normal kids, not just _________ kids who do less moral attributions also predicts cheating behaviour psychopathics
What two areas of the brain may relate to psychopathy (according to blair) and why? The amygdala because it is where expressions of fear and sadness are processed and the orbitofrontal cortex because it helps evaluate rewards and punishments
So Blair hypothesises that because of the continuity between adulthood and childhood psychopathy (cruelty to animals -> psychopath) something must be happening early on. What does he hypothesis in terms of brain dysfunctions? That the amygdala hasnt developed properly because normally the amygdala activates when you feel fear or see someone else feel fear. And that the orbitofrontal cortex is involved in assessing reward and punishment so suggests this doesn't develop properly
Why aren't brain areas such as the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex developing properly in psychopaths?? ITS NOT CLEAR. but environmental experiences are important which is why you have to deal with the problems early(adjust aversive environments) to avoid larger problems later on.
Psychopathy is very difficult to treat unless you...? get in there early on to avoid a larger problem later on
What is the main difference between serial killers and psychopaths? Serial killers are motivated to go out and kill or hurt another person but psychopaths are not motivated to do this, have no desire to hurt another human, but will kill if someone gets in their way (robbing bank)
What is the difference between non-psychopaths and psychopaths in terms of stealing money from someone in the street? Non-psychopaths will feel bad afterwards (if they even get through it) and likely not to do it again because of this guilt but psychopaths will not feel guilty and therefore when they get poor again its easier for them to go out & offend again & steal
Serial killers have a component in their disorder that makes them actually want to ____ but psychopaths dont. Serial killers are likely to be psychopaths but also have additional problems that force them to go out and _____ kill, kill
Created by: alicemcc33