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Chap. 10 8th grade

Consider the Heavens

Mars's two moons are Deimos and ...? Phobos
What is the largest moon in the solar system? Ganymede
A Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is a two-dimensional graph that compares stars by their temperature and brightness
The Summer Triangle is formed of the stars Deneb, Vegas, and Altair
During what phase of the ,own is the entire sunlit side visible? full moon
The orbits of the planets are symmetrical ovals called ellipses
Frozen chunks of ice and dust that orbit the sun are called comets
The explosion of a star is called a supernova
The convection cells that cover the sun's visible surface are called granules
What are the flamelike columns of gas that continually erupt from the lowest layer of the sun's atmosphere? spicules
What is the visible portion of the sun? photosphere
What galaxy shape is the Milky Way? barrel spiral
What unit of measurement is approximately equal to the distance between the sun and the earth? astronomical unit
Be able to identify the following constellations. Cassiopeia, Taurus, Ursa Major, Orion, Cygnus
What word describes Venus's backward rotation on its axis? retrograde
What is the name for the period of time that the moon takes to orbit the earth? lunar month
What is the imaginary sphere with Earth at the center and the heavenly bodies on its inner surface? celestial sphere
What is the imaginary "band" in the sky in which the sun, mom, and planets travel? zodiac
What are the names of the two planets between which the asteroid belt is located? Mars and Jupiter
What is an object that orbits another object called? satellite
What word describes a star that is always above the horizon to an observer at a particular location called? circumpolar
What group of small, icy objects orbit the sun outside the orbit of the outermost planet? Kipper belt
The observed brightness that a star would have to an observer located 10 parsecs away is the. magnitude. absolute
What is the cloud of gas and dust that surrounds the center of a comet? coma
Who developed the law of the universal gravitation? Isaac Newton
What is a rapidly rotating star that emits directional beams of radio waves? pulsar
What Latin word is used to refer to the lunar "seas"? mares
Which scientific law states the relationship between a planet's period and average distance from the sun? third law of planetary motion
What is the apparent change in the position of an object caused by an actual change in the position of the observer? parallax
What is the largest galaxy in the Local Group? Andromeda galaxy
Which category of stars includes the sun? main sequence
With which planet do the Trojan asteroids share an orbit? Jupiter
What is an object so massive and dense that even light can escape its galaxy? black hole
the largest planet in our solar system Jupiter
known for its ring system Saturn
the outermost planet in our solar system Neptune
the fastest-moving planet Mercury
sometimes called the "morning star" and "evening star" Venus
gas giant that seems to lie on its side Uranus
notable feature is Olympus Mons Mars
A planet's closest approach to the sun is perihelion
The idea that the earth is the center of the universe and that the sun, planets, and stars all revolve around the earth is the heliocentric view
A small rock from space that is burning up as it passes through Earth's atmosphere is an asteroid
A large cloud of gas and dust in space is called a nebula
The phenomenon in which the moon passes between the sun and the earth is a solar eclipse
The study of God's creation beyond the atmosphere is astrology
A small group of stars that is used to form a picture or represent an object is an asterism
Vega Lyra
Sirius Canis Major
Spica Virgo
Aldebaran Taurus
Castor Gemini
Polaris Ursa Minor
Betelgeuse Orion
Regulus Leo
binary star system in which two stars are bound together by gravity; these two stars circle each other in the same way that the moon revolves around the earth
open cluster loose, asymmetrical clumps contains tens to hundreds, and occasionally thousands, of stars
globular clusters tightly clumped spherical groups of thousands or millions of stars that travel outside the boundaries of the Milky Way in unusual orbits around the galaxy's center