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# 100 facts

The steps to the scientific method • make observations • ask questions • make a testable hypothesis (prediction) • test the hypothesis (experiment), collect data • analyze the results • draw a conclusion • communicate results
What is an observation? a record of what you see, hear, smell, feel, or taste. The two types are quatantiative (which involve numbers) and qualitative involve words or descriptions.
What is an inference? a conclusion based on what you observe.
Scientific Bias When an inference is recorded as an observation, or an experiment is not adequately controlled or set up to collect accurate data.
What is a variable? Independent? the factors that can affect the experiment. The ____ the scientist is changing. called the ___________________ (also can be called the manipulated _________).
dependent variable The ________ that changes as a result (also can be called the responding _______-).
constant variables _______ that stay the same between trials and experiments
x & y axis independent or manipulated variable dependent or responding variable (DRY MIX).
graph a picture of information on a data table. The x-axis is the horizontal line and is titled with the independent variable. The y-axis is the vertical line, and is titled with the dependent variable.
controlled experiment An experiment in which there is only one independent variable and all other variables are kept constant
metric system also known as the International System of Units (SI), for measurement. The unit for volume is Liter or m^; length is Meter, mass is measured in Grams and temperature is measured in Celsius.
Mass a measurement of how much matter an object contains.
volume The amount of space matter occupies
triple beam balance, graduated cylinder used to find the mass of an object used to find the volume of liquids and irregularly shaped solids
The criteria for something to be considered living 1) ability to move 2) senses and responds to the environment 3) grows 4) repair injury 4) exchange gases and nutrients with the environments 6) excretes waste 7) reproduce
Unicellular & multicellular organisms ________ organisms carry out all of the functions necessary for the organism to stay a live within one single cell. __________ organisms are composed of many specialized cells that work together to help the organism survive
Taxonomy a classification system used to organize living organisms into categories.
Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes (bacteria) do not have a nucleus. are organisms whose cells have a nucleus.
dichotomaous key a chart used to identify an unknown species of organism.
Binomial nomenclature gives each organisms a two-part name that can be understood world wide. The first part of this scientific name is the organism's genus, the second part is their species.
The levels of classification Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species
species a group of organisms whose members can only breed and produce fertile offspring with one another.
3 domains Bacteria- unicellular prokaryotes, are heterotrophs/phototrophs modern bacteria Archae- unicellular prokaryotes, chemotrophs found in Deep Ocean Hydrothermal vents/hot springs ancient bacteria"Eukarya-can be uni/multicellular eukaryotes, are heterotrophs
six kingdoms ARCHAEBACTERIA live in harsh environments EUBACTERIA mild environments PROTISTA move w/ cilia flagella pseudopods FUNGI euk/het reproduce w/ spores PLANTAE euk/pho multicellular ANIMALIA euk/het multicellular reproduce sexually
Biotic/abiotic factors affect an organism's ability to survive in its habitat. The interaction of the ______ and _______ factors creates an ecosystem.
The levels of organism within living systems Cells Tissues ->Organs -> Organ systems ->Organisms -> Population -> Community ->Ecosystem-> Biome ->Biosphere
Population & Community All of the members of one species living in an area All the different populations that live together in an area
carrying Capacity The largest population an environment can support
Symbiosis, mutualism, Commensalism, parasitic relationship between 2 different species, symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit from interaction, symbiotic relationship which 1 benefits & the other is neither harmed nor gains a benefit, one organism benefits while the other is harmed
food chain, food web a path of energy from one organism (feeding level) to another. It is the relationship between animals in a habitat and the foods they eat. A food web is an overlapping network of food chains found in a connmunity.
Energy pyramids represent the loss of energy along a food chain.
A (photo)(chemo)autotroph A-producer that creates its own food from another energy source. P-obtain energy from the sun C-obtain energy from chemical reactions.
heterotroph consumer that cannot make it's own food and therefore must eat other organisms.
Primary, secondary, tertiary consumers _______ ________ eat Autotrophs, ________ _______ eat heterotrophs and ________ _______ ( carnivores and omnivores).
A decomposer an organism that breaks down waste and the remains of dead organisms.
A niche consists of all the ways that a species interacts with its environment. What a species eats, how it gets its food and how it interacts with other organisms is all part of its ______.
major biomes marine, freshwater, grassland, forests (tundra, and desert)
Ecological succession the gradual change from one community to another.
Primary succession a community that developed from a barren environment (usually just bare rock).
Secondary succession when a community evolves from a previously disturbed community.
The three types of resources Renewable- natural resource that can be used and replaced over a short amount of time. 2) Nonrenewable- cannot be replaced over thousands or millions of years, and 3) Inexhaustible a resource that cannot be used up.
The three R's of conservation reduce your use of natural resources in many ways, reuse items whenever possible, and recycle.
Heredity the passing on of biological characteristics (traits) fronn one generation to the next.
DNA the name ofthe molecule that codes for traits. When _____ is wrapped around a protein rod, it is called a chiromosome. Genes are segments of _____ that code for a trait.
An adaptation an inherited trait that changes the species in structure or function to enable it to live in its surroundings and be better suited for the environment.
Natural selection a process by which the organisms best suited to their environment tend to leave the most descendants - "survival ofthe fittest."
Selective breeding the controlled breeding of organisms that have a certain trait.
Asexual reproduction requires one parent results in offspring having the same genetic makeup as the one parent.advantage of asexual reproduction is offspring are produced quickly. disadvantage there is little variety within species to withstand dramatic changes in environmen
Sexual reproduction requires 2 parents results offspring receiving 1/2 of the DNA from 1 parent and other 1/2 from the DNA from the 2nd parent Offspring of sexual reproduc. r more diverse there is a larger variety within offspring, lots of energy wasted
Genotype & Phenotype The _______ is the gene makeup of a trait. _________ is the physical appearance of a trait.
Dominant & recessive genes ______ _______ show in the phenotype when they are inherited. _______ ________ only show in the phenotype when there is not a dominant gene present.
Punnett Square a graphic way to see possible combinations of gene pairs.
Cells Basic unit of life. _____ that have the same job are grouped together to form a tissue. Different tissues working together are grouped into organs. Organs that work together create an organ system. Sets of organ systems work together in an organism.
Homeostasis The regulation ofthe body's internal environment.
stimulus & response _____ causes the body to react. Internal and external _______ cause _______ within the human body.
skeletal system has five functions: gives a body structure and support, helps movement provides protection of major organs, stores minerals and fat, makes blood cells
Joint where two or more bones come together. The immobile joints are called fixed joints. The four types of movable joints are pivot, hinge, ball-and-socket and gliding.
Tendons connect muscles to bones
Ligaments connect bones to bones.
muscular system contracts (shortens) to move bones and body parts.
The types of muscles skeletal which are voluntary and move bones and joints,smooth muscle is involuntary and controls movement of internal organs and, cardiac muscle is involuntary and located only in the heart.
integumentary system 1) protect the body from invasion of bacteria and viruses (protection), 2) reduce and control water loss, 3) production of vitamin D, 4) regulate/maintain body temperature
integumentary system organs (skin) includes the epidermis (dead skin cells on the surface), the endodermis (produces new skin cells), dermis (where nerves, sweat and oil glands, and blood vessels are located) hair, and nails.
circulatory system 1) bring oxygen to cells, 2) bring food to cells, 3) take waste away from cells, 4) fight invaders and 5) deliver chemical messages. The organs of the circulatory system include the heart, veins, arteries, capillaries and blood.
Arteries, veins, capillaries ________ carry blood away from the heart. ________ exchange nutrients, oxygen, and wastes in cells. ________ return blood to the heart.
The four parts of blood Red blood cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide, white blood cells fight infections and platelets form clots. Plasma carries nutrients, blood cells, and other substances.
immune system protects and defends the body against organisms and viruses that could cause harm. The parts ofthe immune system include: skin, mucous membranes, white blood cells, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen.
lymphatic system filters blood, produces white blood cells, and destroys worn-out blood cells.
respiratory system filters, warms and moistens air that enters the body, and provides a way for the body to exchanges carbon dioxide for oxygen.
respiratory system organs lungs, nose, mouth, trachea, bronchioles, larynx, pharynx, diaphragm and alveoli
excretory system removes waste from the body by cleaning the blood.
excretory organs kidneys, skin, lungs, liver, and the large intestine
The 6 major nutrients proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water
digestive system takes food into the body, breaks it down into nutrients, absorbs the nutrients into the blood stream, and gets rid ofthe waste.
digestive system organs mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum.
nervous system receives sensory information about the body and the body's environment and then reacts to the message by sending a response.
nervous system organs 1) the brain 2) the spinal cord and 3) nerves
endocrine system to send and receive hormones to regulate body functions such as growth, metabolism, blood sugar levels, and stress.
endocrine system organs glands: pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, and parathyroid.
reproductive system continues a species, by creating new living organisms.
Plants vary greatly in size and shape and are either vascular (have xylem and phloem) or nonvascular.
Xylem a vascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to other parts of the plant.
Phloem vascular tissue that carries the sugar made during photosynthesis to other parts of the plant.
Photosynthesis when radiant energy (sunlight) is used to produce chemical energy (sugar) and oxygen. _________ provides the food for most organisms on Earth. 6 CO2 + 6H2O sunlight --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2 Carbon dioxide + water yields sugar + oxygen
cellular respiration cells break down simple food molecules such as sugar and release the energy they contain. The equation is 6O2+C6H12O6 --> 6H2O + 6CO2 Oxygen + sugar yields water + Carbon dioxide
tropism A response of a plant to outside stimuli is called ______. Stimuli include light (photo______), gravity (geotropism), and touch (thigmo______).
Turgor pressure a force exerted outward on a cell wall by the water contained in the cell. This force gives the plant ngidity, and may help to keep it up nght.
cell theory a. All organisms are made of one or more cells b. The cell is the basic unit of all living things c. All cells come from existing cells
Organelle a specialized cellular part (such as a mitochondrion, lysosome, or ribosome) that is similar to an organ and performs a function for the cell.
Cell Membrane The outer covering ofthe cell is called the _____ _______, it is found in all cells and functions to allow materials in and out of the cell.
Cell Wall the usually rigid nonliving permeable wall that surrounds the plasma membrane and encloses and supports the cells of most plants, bacteria, fungi, and algae.
Nucleus a membrane bound organelle that contains the DNA ofthe cell and functions as the command center for the cell controlling all other functions.
Cytoplasm a homogeneous, generally clear jelly-like material that fills cells in which the organelles are suspended and held together by a fatty membrane.
Mitochondrion the powerhouse of the cell burning glucose to release the energy to power all other cell functions.
Endoplasmic Reticulum an organelle that carries proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another.
Ribosomes an organelle that produces protein.
Golgi Body (golgi apparatus) an organelle that receives proteins and other newly formed material from the ER and packages and distributes them, or releases them out ofthe cell.
Chloroplast contains the green pigment Chlorophyll and is an organelle that is found in plants, some bacteria, and algae and has the function of performing Photosynthesis to make glucose.
Vacuole an organelle that is a storage area of a cell. Lysosome is a type of ________ that can break down food or old cell parts.
diffusion & osmosis When a molecule moves from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration ________ has occured. WHen the molecule it's _______ is water, it is called ________.
Created by: forster_891454