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Developmental L12

Gender and Friendships

How does Ted say play might be descried? (3 things) then write them out Has no clear, immediate benefits or obvious goals, is accompanies by "play" signals such as smiles and is repeated activity, fragmented, exaggerated or reordered activity - doesn't need to be the same all the time, we can sense that it is play
What are the names of the two categories that play is divided up into? System 1 and System 2
What does System 1 category of play comprise of? Write in the order that children go through them as they age) Locomotor (running), Object (building blocks), Fantasy/pretend play, Social play (doing any of these three things with other kids)
What does System 2 category of play comprise of? (Write in the order that children go through them as they age) Non-social play (being an onlooker, solitary (alone)), Parallel play (playing near other children, doing the same thing but not actually interacting with them), Cooperative play (playing while sharing a common goal)
As children age, non social play is increasing or decreasing and cooperative play is decreasing or increasing? But what do you still see happening from time to time? Why? decreasing, increasing, still see solitary, onlooker and parellel play because sometimes they do their own thing and sometimes they work together with others
When is locomotor play especially common? And why do we think kids do this? In the first 2 years of life. It has an evolutionary purpose as in hunter gatherer days it would have helped us to move quickly and chase animals etc.
When is object/constructive play especially common? Between 3 and 6 years
Fantasy play involves acting out ______day and _________ roles and is especially common between what ages? everyday and imaginary roles, between 2 and 6 years
What are the three consequences (good things) of children's fantasy play? Langauge is facilitated, they learn about the social world and tend to be more advanced in both cognition and language
What is active/locomotor play important for? Gross movement development such as running and climbing
What is object/exploratory play important for? Fine motor skills, sensory integration and eye-coordination
What is representational/pretend play important for? Language - very strong link between this play and language
How does play help children learn to make conversations? From turn taking in play such as when rolling a ball back and forth to someone, this eventually turns into taking turns in conversations
Between 2 and 3 there is a change in play between what types of play? Locomotor play to object play
Between 1 and 2 there is a change in play between what types of play? Locomotor and fantasy
Play teaches children how to ________ with others, (social play) - teaches them that they can't say certain things to others such as "I dont want him to come into car" because that will hurt their feelings. interact
Pretend play and language are both hypothesised to rely on? This is the hypothesised theoretical reason for why these two things are linked symbolic abilities - understanding that the word "apple" represents the real object apple and understanding that pretending to be a mummy represents the real activity of being a mummy
The better the child's language the better....? why? They are at pretend play because they have more words to understand and act out roles
The more pretend play, the better....? why? he child's language because language is scaffolded through talking and acting out roles (two girls in playhouse where older sister is scaffolding her younger sister)
With the video of two sisters pretend playing in playhouse, what is happening and what is in it for them? Older sister's scaffolding younger sister which improves their language. Young sister gets to engage in sophisticated play and language that she wouldn't be able to alone-facilitates both her knowledge & language & old sister gets an assistant & playmate
Does play drop out as children mature? Not really, as adults we still engage in play such as sports. It is important for the well-being of our lives
If you dont give children the opportunity to play , this may effect....? their will to learn later in life
What else is good about older sister scaffolding younger sister? It is good for the brain, provides younger sister with social contact and new information that is stimulation, enhancing her connections in her brain
Who's play tends to be more rough and tumble and risk-taking? Boys
Who's play involves larger groups? Boys
Who's play involves more social interactions as the focus? Girls
Who's play involves smaller groups or dyads? Girls
When kids are younger a friend is basically ....? Anyone who is around (making friend at the pub for half an hour)
In terms of children's friendships there are 3 levels. What is level one and what ages does this type of friendship occur? Level 1 is 'handy playmate (making friend with whoever is around) between 4 and 7 years old
In terms of children's friendships there are 3 levels. What is level two and what ages does this type of friendship occur? Level 2 is 'mutual trust and assistance where it is important to have trust and someone to help you when you are down and is between 8 and 10 years
In terms of children's friendships there are 3 levels. What is level three and what ages does this type of friendship occur? Level 3 is 'Intimacy and Loyalty' where you not only have mutual trust and assistance but you can also discuss certain things (secrets) this close friend
Preschoolers give 2 times_________ to friends than non friends. Friends are more emotionally _________ with one another, school age children ___ and ___ on task more with friends than nonfriends, older children do what more with friends than nonfriends? reinforcement, expressive, share and focus on task more, older children show more cooperation, generosity, mutual affirmation and self-disclosure with friends
Friends disagree and _________ more with each other compete
Girls friendships has more emotional d______ and cl_____, get together "____ to ____", create appearances of ______, emphasise exclusiveness of friendship pair, operate in ______ groups and pairs. disclosure, closeness, "just to talk", equality, small
Boys friendships talk involves more on acc______ and s___, is based on _______ activity rather than disclosure and emotional expression, is _____ structure, play in ______, competitive games with ____ & structure, develop 'p_____' skills of cooperation 7? accomplishments and sport, shared, hierarchical, larger, rules, political skills of cooperation, competition and leadership
In boys friendship groups there is an _______ male who is trying to provide leadership for the group alpha
What 'political' skills do boys develop? Cooperation, competition and leaderhsip
Which friendship group involves are hierarchical structure? Boys or girls? Boys
What are the 4 types of peers? Popular children, Rejected children, Controversial children, Neglected children
What are the two subtypes of popular peers? Type 1 (high in academic and social competence, high in prosocial ability and low in aggression) Type 2 ("tough kids", highly aggressive, "cool" kids)
What are the two subtypes of Rejected children? Type 1 (Aggressive, have sever conduct problems - get angry a lot, poor emotional regulation - girls prone to tears) Type 2 (withdrawn, passive, socially awkward, poor emotional regulation)
How are controversial children described? Blend of characteristics, high activity and high prosocial, often change their classification over time, hard to slot into one category
How are neglected children described? Might be well-adjusted, shy and play alone, good social skills, might also change their classification over time
What type of peer/ child is the boy in the video wanting to join in boys sports game? Neglected child
Why do girls engage in relational aggression (bitching about other girls)? To place themselves in an in-group rather than an out-group, to make themselves feel better
What type of peer/child is this? "Blend of characteristics" Controversial child
What type of peer/child is this? "Shy and often play alone" Neglected child
What type of peer/child is this? "high in academics and social competence" Popular child type 1
What type of peer/child is this? "Aggressive with severe conduct problems" Rejected child type 1
What type of peer/child is this? "tough kid" Popular child type 2
What type of peer/child is this? "hard to slot into one category" Controversial child
What type of peer/child is this? "high in prosocial ability and low in aggression" Popular child type 1
What type of peer/child is this? "high in prosocial and poor emotional regulation" Controversial child because hard to slot into one category
What type of peer/child is this? "Highly aggressive kids and "cool kids" Popular child type 2
What type of peer/child is this? "Withdrawn and passive" Rejected child type 2
What type of peer/child is this? "Socially awkward and poor emotional regulation" Rejected child type 2
What type of peer/child is this? "Girl is prone to tears and boy is prone to be angry" Rejected child type 1
Why is it not goof for children to be rejected children? Because more if rejected at 8 are more 30% more likely to be rejected 4 years later. More likely to be school dropout and be delinquent.
What type of ratings at age 8 of rejected children is the best predictor of mental health problems 11 years later? Peer ratings - so their popularity withe peers predicted the best
How can we improve children's peer relationships? teach them social skills - how to cooperate, communicate and show appropriate emotions, and teaching academic skills also helps as it increases children's self-esteem and positive reactions from peers
Created by: alicemcc33