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Science Chapter Four


stress a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
tension stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
compression 1. stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks 2. the part of a longitudinal wave where the particles of the medium are close together
shearing stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions, in a sideways movement
normal fault a type of fault where the hanging wall slides downward; caused by tension in the crust
reverse fault a type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward; caused by compression in the crust
strike-slip fault a type of fault in which rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up or down motion
plateau a large landform that has high elevation and a more or less level surface
earthquake the shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface
focus the point beneath Earth's surface where rock first breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
epicenter the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus
P wave a type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground
S wave a type of seismic wave in which the shaking is perpendicular to the direction of the wave
surface wave a type of seismic wave that forms when P waves and S waves reach Earth's surface
seismograph a device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth
Modified Mercalli scale a scale that rates the amount of shaking from an earthquake
magnitude the measurement of an earthquake's strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults
Richter scale a scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves
moment magnitude scale a scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake
seismogram the record of an earthquake's seismic waves produced by a seismograph
Created by: lhanna100