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Sensory Olfactory
Sensory Optic
Sensory Vestibulocochlear
Motor Trochlear
Motor Abducent
Motor Accessory
Motor Hypoglossal
Mixed motor/sensory Oculomotor
Mixed motor/sensory Trigeminal
Mixed motor/sensory Facial
Mixed motor/sensory Glossopharyngeal
Mixed motor/sensory Vagus
CNI Olfactory
CNII Optic
CNIII Oculomotor
CNIV Trochlear
CNV Trigeminal
CNVI Abducent
CNVII Facial
CNVIII Vestibulocochlear
CNIX Glossopharyngeal
CNX Vagus
CNXI Accessory
CNXII Hypoglossal
CNI Smell
CNII Vision
CNIII Eye movement, accommodation
CNIII elevation/adduction of eye
CNIV eye movement; depression of adducted eye
CNV facial sensation, mastication
CNVI eye movement; abduction
CNVII facial expression, taste(anterior 2/3rd), salivation, lacrimation
CNVIII balance, hearing
CNIX taste (posterior 1/3rd), innervation of pharynx
CNX swallowing, talking, cardiac, GI tract, respiration, taste
CNXI pharynx/larynx muscles, neck & shoulder movement
CNXII tongue movement
Fracture C1 Jefferson or Burst Fracture
Jefferson/Burst fracture C1 ring; blow to top of head; diving; 1/3rd associated with fracture C2; can be associated with injury to transverse lig
Transverse ligament prevents posterior displacement of dens and anterior displacement of atlas
rupture transverse ligament destabilization injury; flexion injury;
atlantoaxial subluxation softening vs rupture of transverse ligament; more likely to cause spinal cord compression than fracture of dens
atlantoaxial subluxation seen in connective tissue disorders such as 20% ppl with Downs Syndrome
Fracture of Dens of C2 from horizontal blow to head or complication of osteopenia
Hang Mans Fracture hyperextention traumatic spondylosis(disc degeneration) C2 from hanging or whiplash
Tear drop fracture Flexion injury during MVA is most common; may involve anteroinferior or posterior inferior body fragment; often associated with spinal cord injury due to posterior fragment encroaching into canal and cause paralysis
Clay Shovelers fracture stable fracture
Clay shovelers fracture through spinous process of a vertebrae; usually lower cervical or upper thoracic but mostly C6/7; pain between shoulder blades
Chance Fracture most common is T12-L2 and midlumbar in Peds
Chance Fracture violent forward flexion injury; compression in anterior portion; 50% associated with intrabdominal injury
Chance Fracture seatbelt injury
Holdsworth Fracture unstable
Holdsworth Fracture dislocation of thoracolumbar junction; flexion/rotation injury with fracture through vertebral body, rupture posterior spinal ligaments, fracture of facet joints
Most commonly fractured vertebrae T12 due to transitional stresses
Most commonly dislocated vertebrae Cervical
Most commonly disc degenration, herniation, arthritic spondylosis and spondylolisthesis Lumbar
Batson's venous plexus gives a way for prostate cancer to metastasize to lumbar vertebrae; it drains each segmental level and is continuous with the pelvic veins; located in epidural space
Spinal stenosis hurts when walk/stand, better when sit
Disc herniation Better when walk, hurts when sit due to 7x increase in interdiscal pressure while sitting
Spondylosis characterized by disc degeneration and osteophytosis; see pars defect with a scottie dog collar sign
Spondylolisthesis slipped disc
Unstable spondylolisthesis more than 4mm change of translation with flexion/extension
Uncovertebral joints Joints of Luschka; C3-C6; frequent sites of spur formation
Ligamentum flava extend vertically from lamina above to lamina below; stop abrupt flexion of vertebral column, protecting IV discs from injury
Extension splenius capitus
extension multifidus
extension longissimus capitus
extension semispinalis capitus
extension trapezius
rotation rotatores
rotation splenius cervicus
rotation semispinalis capitus
rotation semispinalis cervicus
segmental arteries trunk
subcostal and lumbar arteries abdomen
segmental arteries supply vertebral bodies
segmental medullary arteries supply spinal nerve roots and spinal cord
lumbar puncture extraction of CSF from lumbar cistern
Lumbar puncture needle inserted between L3/4
spinal block anesthetic into CSF
epidural block anesthetic into epidural splace
epidural block used in childbirth
Longitudinal arteries supply spinal cord; 1 anterior spinal artery and paired posterior spinal arteries
Veins of spinal cord 3 anterior and 3 posterior spinal veins
injury C1-3 no function below head; requires ventilation
injury C4-5 quadriplegic with resp function
injury C6-8 some UE motion
injury T1-9 paraplegic
erector spinae muscles Iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis
Created by: jjohrden16