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Cell Biology 1


Cell Membrane the semipermeable membrane enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell.
Cell Wall the definite boundary or wall that is part of the outer structure of certain cells, as a plant cell.
Chloroplasts a plastid containing chlorophyll.
Chromosomes any of several threadlike bodies, consisting of chromatin, that carry the genes in a linear order: the human species has 23 pairs, designated 1 to 22 in order of decreasing size and X and Y for the female and male sex chromosomes respectively.
cytoplasm the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles.
Endoplasmic Reticulum a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) or studded with ribosomes (rough endoplasmic reticulum) involved in the transport of materials.
Golgi Bodies an organelle, consisting of layers of flattened sacs.
Mitochondria an organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that functions in energy production.
Nuclear Membrane the double membrane surrounding the nucleus within a cell.
Nucleus a specialized, usually spherical mass of protoplasm encased in a double membrane, and found in most living eukaryotic cells, directing their growth, metabolism, and reproduction, and functioning in the transmission of genic characters.
Ribosomes a tiny, somewhat mitten-shaped organelle occurring in great numbers in the cell cytoplasm either freely, in small clusters, or attached to the outer surfaces of endoplasmic reticula, and functioning as the site of protein manufacture.
Vacuole a membrane-bound cavity within a cell, often containing a watery liquid or secretion. See diag. under cell.
Prokaryote any cellular organism that has no nuclear membrane, no organelles in the cytoplasm except ribosomes, and has its genetic material in the form of single continuous strands forming coils or loops, such as the bacteria and blue-green algae.
Eukaryote any organism having as its fundamental structural unit a cell type that contains specialized organelles in the cytoplasm, a membrane-bound nucleus enclosing genetic material organized into chromosomes.
Mitosis the usual method of cell division, characterized typically by the resolving of the chromatin of the nucleus into a threadlike form, which condenses into chromosomes, each of which separates longitudinally into two parts.
Meiosis part of the process of gamete formation, consisting of chromosome conjugation and two cell divisions, in the course of which the diploid chromosome number becomes reduced to the haploid. Compare mitosis.
Monomer a molecule of low molecular weight capable of reacting with identical or different molecules of low molecular weight to form a polymer.
Polymer a compound of high molecular weight derived either by the addition of many smaller molecules, as polyethylene, or by the condensation of many smaller molecules with the elimination of water, alcohol, or the like, as nylon.
Carbohydrates any of a class of organic compounds that are polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones, or change to such substances on simple chemical transformations,
Lipids any of a group of organic compounds that are greasy to the touch, insoluble in water, and soluble in alcohol and ether.
Proteins any of numerous, highly varied organic molecules constituting a large portion of the mass of every life form and necessary in the diet of all animals and other non-photosynthesizing organisms.
nucleic acids any of a group of long, linear macromolecules, either DNA or various types of RNA, that carry genetic information directing all cellular functions: composed of linked nucleotides.
Created by: S0402842