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Soc of Deviance

a sociological imagination c. wright mills. "critical point-of-view". view human lives as they are shaped historically. conditioned social forces.
c. wright mills a sociological imagination
facts things, objects, observations, events, verified happenings.
concepts generated from facts. abstractions or ideas about "something". define what a fact might be.
theories attempt to explain the basis of facts. when, where, why, and how
deviance violations of a larger group neighborhoods, organizations, cities, groups. qualities, rates, statistics. social correlations(crime and poverty, teens and drug use?)
violations by individuals who violates? their demographics?
deviance (norm violation definition) seen as a "real" and measurable phenomena; it exists "naturally" in society. core "rights" and "wrongs" serve society's functionings. conduct that departs significantly from norms set specifically for people in their social structure.
deviance (social definition) defined by others--dependent on their point-of-view, history, and power. who (deviants) and what actions (deviance) is/are/become "labeled" as such matters
socialization process by which individuals acquire the values, beliefs, and behavioral patterns of thesocial groups which they belong. internalization of norms,values, culture, and expectations.
norms the (mostly) informal rules that gruops adopt to regulate group members' behaviors. help make our interactions with people predictable, and allow conformity. focus on behaviors. how the world "should" be, and prescribes behavioral changes to get there.
values takenn for granted beliefs of our world. how we think something is. focus on personal view. are often the sources of stereotypes, scial conflict. social imperatives of how the world works. mutually exclusive categories. how the world "is": right or wrong
knowing we've been socialized when roles are habituals "things come naturally". culture has been internalized.
agents of socialization people in groups who pass along culture while interacting within the context of social institutions.
length of socialization process lifelong
primary socializers intense face-to-face interactions. where we develop a "social self". happening with family or peers. person you are as you life your life.
peers govern short-term goals of the individual
parents govern long-term goals of the individual
secondary socializers less intense; little emotional attachment. school, education, work, media. teach us a "hidden curriculum" of rules/regulations, rewards/punishments. 1st beaurocracy: how it "should" be. entrenches gender diff. faith/religion=morals/values & life themes
qualities of re-socialization institutions (jail, rehab, mental, hospital, boot camp). staff supervision. standardized environment. formal rules/schedules. heavy sanctions for violations.
re-socialization to radically change an individual's personality by controlling their environment (functionalists) to strip down peole and rebuild them (clean slate)
functionalists most interested in integration of people, goals, & resources that ensure system stability. rules/norms/laws exist to manage integration. society is functioning well when ppl are well-integrated, and not functioning well when change produces conflict.
integration no conflict. people accept actions they are doing as "normal". shared values. society gets "inside" the individual.
collective outrage norm reinforcement (essential). if not, we risk collapse of our values; having values/norms is functional. functional for us to know what is "right" or "wrong"
deviace: durkheim functionalist. french, jewish. "deviants are functional because they identify or are a symptom of social pathologies and they offend "collective sentiments" or expectations.
durkheim: role of punishment reflect moral outrage. maintain intensity of collective sentiments. marks extremes of acceptable behavior. creates publicity & drama which show reprecusions of norm violations
criminality acts that offend collective sentiments
deviance: erikson "who we are vs. who they are". not an indicator of social pathology. is a norm strengthener. creates boundaries. reaffirms our own groups' special nature. teaches us an understanding of the outside/inside of group. gives group its meanings
courts & boundaries: erikson "public arena of punishment" provide a formal stage. public announcement of deviation. the deviant is placed in the role of the "neutralized". pageantry & drama. ceremonial sets.
social ecology distribution of social activities across space and time. how the distribution of social activities enhances or impedes collective goals. how this effects the expereinces of the individual.
deviants new immigrants. threats to social order/cohesion.
steps of society under conflict invasion(new invades old). competition(norms, values, goals: new vs. old). succession(win out: old vs.new) OR accommodation(absorbed). reorganization(new norms/values. "survival of the fittest" culture.
social disorganization theory society is "organized" when there is a high degree of internal consistency, high degree of expectation of norms and cohesion through agreement of which gaols to pursue. traditional vs new=challenge, which leads to conflict.
two parts of social disorganization process (decreasing influence of traditions). description(the state of social disorganization)
components of social disorganization causes:immigration, technology (lead to) attitudes and behaviors of deviances, loss of influence of traditional structures
tautology when beginning and end cause each other
thomas & zanecki process of social disorganization challege to group rules. attempt to neutralize. disorganization: conflict of competing "norms". reorganization: nrew rules presented OR social reconstruction: group is able to bring itslef back together. has to be some orig component of group. dissolution
anomie (durkheim) a state of normlessness. person has/knows the social norms (rules) to govern their actions in a given social position or situation.
anomic suicide we're more individualistic; rules are all over the place.
social gravity social pressures push us to do things we're good at. about system, stability, function.
anomie (merton) strain theory. caused by inconsistencies in cultural goals with the prescribed means to achieve those goals. people will resort to shortcuts to achieve goals.
sykes & matza have to neutralize internal/external feelings of condemnation. justifications: follows an unexpected act. rationalizations: precedes an unexpected act. learned techniques.
five types of neutralizations denial of repsonsibility, denial of injury, denail of the victim, condemnation of the condemners, appeal to higher loyalties.
denial of responsibility actions are beyond their control. no intentionality: displacement. "i was late to class because of traffic"
denial of injury no one was injured by our actions. breaks the link between action and outcome. "me littering didn't hurt anybody" pranks.
denial of the victim the person deserved it: target is legitimate, not random. action is punishment or retaliation. "serial killer that kills other serial killers because they deserve it, wouldn't get caught otherwise"
condemnation of the condemners moves the focus from the action to his/her detractors. diffusing and deflecting. "officer, you're giving me a ticket because you had a bad day"
appeal to higher loyalties i'm in a dilemma of competing norms. norms if a general society are rejected to meet norms of more immediat/higher loyalty. "i need to steal to feed my family, so i break the rule"
social constructionism meaning making; meanings shift and change over time, place, hisotyr, culture, etc. meaning is relative.
labeling theory focuses on labeler, not person doing the act. people become deviant.
status a position a person occupies in a social group. have roles (actions, behaviors, norms). ascribed, achieved, master.
ascribed status society assigns to an individual. individual has no control over this (race, class, religion)
achieved status characteristic achieved through work, education (doctor, lawyer, president)
master status the status that is most significant to a person at a give time or place. can change.
deviance occurs when a deviant extends defenses for their actions as justifications for a deviance that is recognized as valid by the deviant, but not by the legal system or society at large.
sutherland & cressy learning takes place usually amongst close or personal groups.
sutherland & cressy: associations vary by: frequency: how often? duration: how long? priority: how important is the event to you? intensity: how much or little exposure?
learning structures need to be taught or exposed, or motivated in some way
opportunity structures need to be able to have access to the appropriate environment to execute your learned deviance
sykes & matza neutralization, justification, rationalization. "deviants live within conformity and know when they are breaking rules" experience shame, understand norms, draw lines, not immune to demands of conformity, can't escape condemnation for guilt & punishment
justification guilt and punishment
categories all are in some way socially constructed. can be objects/things/ideas/beliefs. can be chosen or imposed. often use "economic logic of rep". have postive/negative effects on those applied to.
positives of belonging to a category share a culture. learn discrimination issues/techniques & how to manage them. teach diversity/sensitivity difference. develop community.
negatives of belonging to a category stereotypic characteristics. reduces the plight of minories (blame the victim). membership generates behaviors. behaviors become dependent on their category.
excess meaning the added meanings we give to objects and symbols
lemert: primary deviation experimenting. exposed to, encounter, etc. unintentional. "don't know what you're doing"
primary deviation actions are not significant unless they are organized out of the realm of everyday action. transformed into roles--statuses. belonging to a group.
transition from primary to secondary deviation begins when a person employs their deviant role/behavior as a means of defense, attack, or adjustment in response to overt or covert problems society brings to them.
steps of deviation primary deviation. social penalties are given. further deviation. stronger penalties. further deviation. transition point to secondary deviance: crisis of tolerance. stop deviant conduct or strengthen deviant conduct.
crisis of tolerance formal announcement of santionging which includes identification of devaint as some kind of threat. "we're not tolerating this anymore"
moral entreprenurs pepole that take the lead in getting a particular behavior negativesly labeled as such. labeler has the power. deviants have to develop illegitimate routines to carry out a "normal life"
becker: career deviance/prefessionalization maintenence of devaint identifies after labeling. when labeling someone, it only takes one act to become deviant. specific act is geneeralized across character. master status becomes the deviance role labeled. master status can be imposed by others.
medicalization of deviance dislocation of responsibility. assumed to be neutral. domination of expert control. medical social control permits certain actions. individualization of social problems. depoliticization of deviant behavior.
dislocation of responsibility liberates but also removes the individuals responsibility for their actions
medicine is assumed to be neutral medicine is profoundly imbled with morality. defining behavior as disease meants negative label is somehow a "scientific fact"
domination of expert control the experts have a monopoly on what they decide is deviant. there is no counter whatsoever in our society to their power.
medical social control permits certain actions defining deviant behavior as "medical" permits certain actions into people and their bodies that could not otherwise be allowed: cutting into surger, EST, prescription, isolations, behavior modifications, etc.
individualization of social problems effectively removes instutional or structural responsibility of social problems from those institutions. it becomes a perobalm of social adaptation by the individual.
depoliticization of deviant behavior ignores the meaning of the social context of the behavior itself. there could be other reasons why people behave as they do--they are doing so in protest.
Created by: ademb