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MUSC101 Exam 4

Music Appreciation

Impressionism -atmosphere and mood take the place of strong emotion, or of the story of program music -faided commadefuse, impression of a golden moment
Anti-Wagnerianism Claude Debussy: Gameleon...,Impressionist painting..., symbolist poetry...
Gamelon an Indonesian group of instruments from Java, rhythm most important, tuned gong
Impressionist Painting France, painters: Monet, Manet, Degas, Pissarro, Renoir, light and color (pastel), reaction against Romanticism
Symbolist Poetry sound of a word as well as its meaning, difficult to translate
La Soiree dans Grebade -Genre: Habanera - Dance-and-Trio -Double exoticism
Archaic Scales exotic scales (Arabic, whole tones), unresolved dissonances, free rhythm, short, lyric forms (character pieces), thematic transformation becomes thematic implication
thematic implication ideas and philosophies that are suggested/asserted by the composer in the music
Debussy composer, from France, impressionist, Paris conservatory, won Prix de Rome, World War I made him stop composing
Prelude to 'The Afternoon of a Faun' composer: Debussy, based on Mallarme pastoral poem, mythological creatures, free ternary form, chromatic melody
Distilled Nationalism reaction against Romanticism, primitivism, escape from refinement, used non-western sourcesous
Stravinsky -Russian born -Ballet Russes - Diaghilev -1920s in France -1940s in U.S.
Primitivism a reaction from the overrefinement of such artists as Debussy and Ravel
Le sacre du printemps -composer: Stravinsky, subtitled "Scenes of Pagan Russia", primitivistic rhythms and mood, expanded ensemble, Russian and Baltic folk songs -Right of Spring - translation
Neoclassicism means newly realized, "Back to Bach", early 1920s, absolute music, balance and objectivity, return to formal structures
Ethnomusicology the comparative study of the music(s) of the world
Bartok most scientific and ethnocentric enthnomusicology, worked in Hungary, studied folklore, emigrated to U.S.
Concerto for Orchestra composer: Bartok, Boston Symphony Orchestra hired him to compose, 5 movements, rondo-like form
IV: "Interrupted Intermezzo" theme: Shostakovitch's symphony No.7
Polychord two or more chords on top of each other
Polyharmony two or more simultaneous musical harmonies
Polytonality using more then one key simultaneously
Polymeter two or more meters at the same time
Additive Meter patterns of beats that subdivide into smaller, irregular groups
Painting Genre-Expressionism -developed in Germany in opposition to Impression -subconscious, hallucinations, dreams -artists: Kardinsky, Klee, Kokoschka, Munch(painted the scream)
Musical Expressionism -composers (most important): Schoenburg, Webem, Berg -Musical characteristics: inharmonious,extreme range, disjunct melodies -emancipation of dissonance, 12 tone/dodecaphonic music -Schoenberg came up with strict employment of a fixed series of pitches
Second Viennese School Shoenburg, Webem, Berg
Emancipation of dissonace dissonance and concinent of equal value, don't have to end on a concinentn
12 tone/Dodecaphonic music full chromatic, atonal, stroenberg cam up with dodecaphonic
Instrumentation (the Pierrot ensemble) largish camber ensemble (small number of people, many instruments), darker (low-pitched) instruments,Percussion (battery) to the foreground, piano an ensemble instrument
Retro-forms new emphasis on organization & succinctness, older forms/genres: fugue, concerto grosso,etc.
Schoenberg from Austria, teacher, largely self-taught. developed atonality & serialism techniques, emigrated to U.S., worked at USC and UCLA
Pierrot lunaire -composer: Schoenberg -song cycle -psychotic clown obsessed with the moon -voice & varied chamber ensemble -Sperechstimme
Sprechstimme a nightmare speech
Slave Music work songs, devotional music
Spirituals devotional music
Ragtime Scott Joplin came up with Ragtime, ragged rhythm = syncopation, Steinway player-piano rolls, ragtime as a reputable art form
Blues Billie Holiday blues and jazz singer, form (A-A-B), the difference between jazz and blues is jazz has improvisation, piano, drums, and guitar act like basso continuo
Big Band Jazz 1930s-40s, jazz rhythm (complex rhythm with syncopation), jazz harmonies (extremely complex tall chords),
Be-bop -improvisation on vocals and instruments -small-ensemble jazz -A-A-B-A form (32 bar song), tune is presented in first chorus, B=Bridge
Lenord Bernstein composer of West Side Story, conducted New York Philharmonic, classic and popular music
West Side Story -composer: Bernstein -union of Jazz & Latino music with musical theater -lyrics by Stephen Sondheim -based on "Romeo & Juliet" -Street gangs of New York City -Latin dance music and jazz, Mambo (African-Cuban dance) -Tonight in A-A-B-A form
Louis Armstrong most important early jazz musician, most famous jazz trumpet player, Satchmo is his nickname
George Gershwin -lived in Tin Pan Alley (became the epicenter of popular music) and Broadway -no formal trainning -finest American Opera: Porgy & Bess -Instrumental works
National: Classical Use of Military Band Music -John Phillip Sousa, Bandmaster, most important bandmaster in U.S. history -Charles Ives, a businessman/composer, first international composer from U.S., insurance saler at first
Copland graduate studies in Paris, Nadia Bounlager (Copland's teacher), composed many genres: U.S. Nationalism, Neoclassicm, Dodecaphonic
Appalachian Song composer: Compland, music for ballet, later a concert, primary melody is simple gifts in section 7 based on religious sect
Revelutas a composer, mexican, child prodigy of the violin, Spanish civil war upset him, died at age 40, music is colorful & fookloric
Homenaje e Fedrico Garci a Lorca composer: Revueltas, chamber ensemble, small string section, celebrtes poet's life (Lorca's), movment III: son(rondo-like form) and evocative of mariachi ensemble
Mariachi Enesamble focuses on guitar and trumpet
son -Mexican dance song -III mvt of Homenja e Fedrico Garci a Lorca -rondo-like form -Lorca (master poet)
serial means the same as tone row
instrumentation music does not flow, but jumps leaps and bounds
Musique Concrete music made up of natural sounds and sound effects that are recorded and then manipulated electronically.
Tape Music music created by using tapes
Synthesizer -Widespread popularity after "Switched-on Bach" -created by Walter/Wendy Carlos (who got a sex change after he got enough money) whose instrument was the Moog piano
Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) a technical standard that describes a protocol, digital interface and connectors and allows a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers and other related devices to connect and communicate with one another
Digital Sampling takes a recording of sounds and comes up with pitches
Babbitt composer who combined electronic music with live performers
Oliveros -composer who used mixed media, multichannel tape, and live performers -experimented with live electronic music
Britten a composer of Neo-Romanticism, from England, composed opera and choral work
The War Requiem -a dedication of the wicked war -written for choir & orchestra; & an English tenor, a Russian soprano, & a German baritone-representing 3 of the belligerents in World War II
Experimentalism -the art since the Mid-Twentieth Century -social turmoil reflected in the arts -movements in the arts: abstract expressionism, pop art, post-modernism, feminist art, ethnic art and literature -performance art
John Cage from U.S., studied East Asian philosophies, quest for tranquility
Chance Music (or indeterminacy or aleatoic music) -was a balance or counter to total serialism -random determinations of portions of a "happening" -4'3" is the competion that can be played on any instrument
Sonata V, from Sonatas and Interludes -composer: Cage -medium: prepared piano (to simulate Javanese gamelan) -items inserted in the piano strings (screws, etc.) -gong like songs -form binary (A-A-B-B) -nonmetrical
Higdon (Jennifer) born in Brooklyn, graduate of U of Penn, won a Pulitzer Prize
blue cathedral -composer: Higdon -medium: full orchestra, expanded percussion -genre: symphonic poem -form: sectional, rondo-like -rhythm is very complex -use of tintinnabulation - the ringing or soundings of bells -written as a tribute to Higdon's brother
Neo-Romanticism -reaction to the pseudo intellectualism and alienation of the 12-tone movement -favors the practices from the romantic era: full melody center, home tone
Bright Sheng born in Shanghai, cultural revolution mad him come to U.S.,post modernist studied at Queens Collage and Columbia, got MacArthur Foundation "genius" Award, teaches at University of Michigan
China Dreams (from larger work Prelude) -compose: Sheng -genre: symphonic suite -form: A-B-C (sectional) -East meets West -glissando (to slide from one note to another)
Pentatonic scale 5 note scale
Part (composer) from Estonia, religious convictions vs. Soviet Union, lived in West Berlin, Latin and Orthodox church choral music
Cantate Domino canticum novum -means: sing to the lord a new song -composer: Part -Latin text based on a Pslam -medieval-chant-like melody -varied texture, use of counterpoint -SATB chorus vs. Organ -Tintinnabular (ringing ball) style
Neo-Renaissance (AKA-Spiritual Minimalism) -music, painting, and sculpture -barest essentials -music turns away from serialism -features repition of melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic patterns
Adams (composer) from U.S., post-minimalist, harvard trained, wrote serial music, based in San Francisco, advocate fore contemporary music, minimalism + Neo-Romanticism
Doctor Atomic; "At the sight of this" -composer: Adams -the repetition of minimalists -emancipated dissonance -short-phrased -prominent percussion and heavy accents of much 20th century music
Underscoring playing of music quietly under dialogue or a visual scene
Source Music source of the music is in the actual picture
Letimotif a recurring musical phrase associated with a particular person, place, or idea
Rachel Portman from England, first women to win an Academy Award for best music in the the movie Emma
Tan Dun -from China -cultural revolution: "new wave" of Chinese composers -his music was banned -worked at Columbia University in New York -post-modern blend of Asian musical traditions and Western styles -composed opera, symphony, film score, etc.
Harry Potter -composer: John Williams -generally a "Tchaikovsky-like" score -full orchestra -use of leitmotifs
Raiders of the Lost Ark: "Raiders' March" -composer: John Williams -genre: film score -form: march-and-trio; ternary & coda -use of lietmotifs, ostinato
Ostinato music feature repeated over, & over
Created by: NickUD