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Legal Psyc 1

Witnessing a Crime

Studying eyewitnesses is important because it is very common and often there is no DNA, and also because of DNA exonerations which show that eye witnesses are really prone to ________. error
Eye witness evidence is powerful and persuasive to juries and investigators. So it is really f_______ (error prone) but very p___________ fallible, persuasive
What are the components of eyewitness memory? Perception and then Memory (Encoding, Storage, Retrieval)
What component is the first thing to go wrong? Perception. We cant always rely on what we see in front of us.
When we talk about perception, we are also talking about i_____________ interpretation.
What do we use to perceive our surroundings? Our senses
Why is our perception limited by our senses? The eyes dont relate to the brain like a video recorder and once neural impulses are transported to the brain, they might be further coded, reorganised and interpreted.
What is this referring to? "Our brain is trained to find a meaning where there is no meaning such as finding Big Foot in a photo" and how does it relate to perception? Pareidolia. Because it is a psychological phenomena in the brain where it perceives something to be significant when really it is not.
Pareidolia is a very powerful thing that relates to our ___________. Once you have seen something, it is really hard for our brain to unwire it and not see it. perception
Perception is not purely physical. It depends on....? Past experiences, Stereotypes and Expectations such as Schemas
Read lecture notes about schemas and their potential for error. Make not of the four ways they can go wrong and the studies that relate. ...
Schemas that are important ot self-concept or professional functioning may be activated and applied to stimuli. - Police shown clip of two people meeting in street were more likely to think it was a _____ _____ drug deal
Temporary influences can trigger schema a___________. e.g. acute concerns or features of the context in which stimuli is encountered. When med students take blood that all they concentrate on, seeing the persons veins activation
Schemas may be activated by statements from others. "Stop theif!!" If this was not yelled out then you might remember it d_____________ to what you actually see. Differently
Recently activated (or "primed") schemas may remain active and affect p____________ of new information. processing
Study was done on schemas where group A was primed to believe that David Bain shot his family and group B was primed to believe the father did it. They then listened to tape recording of 111 call. What did they find? Participants who had been primed to believe that David Bain was guilty responded more towards thinking that David said "I shot the prick" at points 4-6
In the David Bain study only 4 of Group B participants heard David Bain say "I shot the prick" at poins 4-6 ....
Why is there concern about whether or not we should arm our police with guns? Because there is potential for error as they see something that did not actually happens such as person holding a gun.
Study about police's potential for error: subjects primed with either black or white face. THen asked to classify objects as tools or weapons. Results: Those primed with black face were...? more likely to categorise weapons quicker.
When forced to respond quickly, those who were primed with black face were more likely to m_____________ identify tools as ____________. mistakenly, weapons
Computer simulation study where subjects were asked to shoot only targets holding weapons, found that they were more likey to hit....? black, unarmed people than unarmed white people. Even police show this bias.
Another study was where half participants are holding foam ball and half holding a gun. They found that those holding a gun were more likely to see/perceive someone holding a _____. This happens with p_______ and h________ Gun. This is why it is scary if our police are armed as this perception will happen to them. This perception occurs because what you view is hooked up with what you think you can do. Police and Hunters
What are the implications of eyewitnesses perceptions? Environmental or health conditions may impact perception (foggy weather) and our expectations/experience might influence what we perceive or how we interpret it.
One reason you are having a memory problem could be because of an __________ problem --> it never went into your head in the first place. encoding
We can not encode everything because our attention is really ___________ - we dont notice what is on our $20 notes. In radiologist study only 4 out of 24 people noticed the g_______ in scan. selective, gorilla
What are the 4 factors that might influence encoding? Attention, Salience, Stress/Arousal and Presence of Weapon
One example of attention influencing our encoding is "change blindness". This is where we dont see a large/suggen _____ in our environment. In study they change person being the experimenter and 75% dont notice! What is the other study example of this? change, man asking where trinity church is swaps with different looking person even females and they dont notice.
So change blindness is when we dont see big or small? changes in our environment that we would expect people to see big
The effect of salience is that the more important something is to you, the more likely you are to __________ it. encode
Study showing the effect of salience:Staged theft in front of students where thieved item was either _________ or trivial. Results: eyewitnesses made more correct identifications of thief when they perceived the crime to be more ___________ expensive, serious
Look at the study on this that shows how we can be sure whether these results about effect of salience is due to increased encoding or increased rehearsal ...
The effect of stress/arousal: 64% of eyewitness experts believe stress has a negative effect on memory. BUT they cant agree on what exactly is effected! ...
The Effect of stress/arousal: Yerkes Dodson Law (1980) shows that the happy medium is somewhere in the ________ of the __ shape. But actual evidence is somewhat more controversial. middle, U
Study on stress/arousal showed participants video of robbery where someone gets shot at end or doesn't get shot. Those who watch violent video had ________ memories specifically for the detail seen .....? poorer/worse, seen immediately before the violence (shooting).
Why would the violence (which caused arousal/stress) stop the memory from setting? Maybe stress stops/disrupts your memory from consolidating/setting.
Another stress/arousal study: people with and without spider phobia were exposed to a spider in a jar. Memory for central or peripheral? events did not differ but those with spider phobia scored lower when asked about central or peripheral? details central, peripheral
"What the room was like, whether there was music playing, what art was on the wall etc is an example of central or peripheral details? Peripheral
Effect of stress/arousal: James Easterbrook came up with the ____ _____________ Theory which is where people can only attend to a limited number of cues at any one time. He is saying here that as stress incr., some of their resources are..?(look at notes) taken away and their attention narrows to the stress-generating features.
What is this referring to? "Visual attention that eyewitnesses give to the perpetrator's weapon during the course of the crime" "Weapon Focus" effect
Is the "Weapon Focus" effect a selective attention thing? Yes
What factors influencing encoding does Weapon focus effect relate to? Attention, Salience or Stress/Arousal? Attention - selective attention
But what is it that makes people selectively attend to the weapon? There are two possibilities...what are the? Arousal or Context
What study shows that it is not SOLELY due to arousal? (Shows that its not not due to arousal but not solely due to arousal) Shown slides of customer pulling out chequebook gun. If WFE is due to arousal then it shouldn't occur as they're not stressed. They made more correct identifications in the no weapon condition-so is not solely due to arousal(as not stressful situation.
Study on weapon focus effect that looks at context... What happened? Saw slides of police or priest carrying gun or cellphone. Priest with gun is out of context. Descriptions of priest with gun were less accurate. So context plays quite a role on WFE
From studies we can conclude that both ___________ does not solely play a role on selective attention of __________ __________ effect and that ___________ does play a role. Arousal, weapon, focus, context
What gets in may vary in strength. Encoding is more like a c______________. Not black and white, some things may get in strongly or weakly Continuum
Four things can influence how strongly something is encoded. What are they? Amount of exposure, Age, Salience and Knowledge.
If you are exposed to something for longer you will e_______ it more s__________. encode, strongly
Age: children don't tend to encode things as strongly as adults due to...? Their lack of experience, they dont have as many schemas to attach things to. They dont have enough knowledge to work out whats out f context and whats not.
Salience: we encode things more _______ if we think they are im________ strongly, important
Knowledge: we encode things better if we have things to r______ them to or can make sense of them better relate
So not everything gets in and what gets in can vary in __________ strength
What are the implications for Eyewitness encoding? (look at notes) ....
Created by: alicemcc33