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ancients sport final

last test

fictus ruminalis the tree of the suckling
rome was named Rome because romulous killed remus when he saw the birds first so he became the first king of the area
pomerium wall remus kept jumping over line saying "I'm in rome, now im not", romus got annoyed and killed him, becoming king
the rape of the Sabine women sabine had beautiful women, at the sporting event when Romus gave the word all the Romans snatched sabine women
"touches a womans heart" romus says "honey words" (saying they were so smitten by their beauty) to justify taking woman and touches their heart making them okay with it
Titus Tatius and Tarpeia Tarpeia asked for the gold bands on titus' left arm to look sabine, forgot about the shields and was beat to death by the shields
tarpia rock a rock named after tarpeia where people who had committed treachery were thrown against
the plea of the wives and children asked the sabine men and the romans to stop fighting because they wanted to raise their children in Rome where they ended up liking it
Regia royal palace and house of the king, showed monarchy was set up
1st king Romulus 753-715 bc
2nd king Numa Pompilius 715-673 bc
5th king Tarquinius Priscus 617-579 bc
7th king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (the Proud) 535-510 bc
the rape of lucretiaa was the only faithful and ideal wife of the soldiers, sextus tarqin (son of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus) rapes her and she then kills herself
tarquin collatinus was the husband and soldier of lucrecia, vows to overthrow the monarchy because of what tarquin the greats son did to his wife
lucius brutus cousin or tarqin, vows to also overthrow the monarchy
res publica first roman republic
first two consols of the republic tarquin collatinus & lucius brutus
Guals sack rome led by brennus in the 390's, scale is rigged so that brennus get more money
vae victus woe to the conquer
1st samnite war 343-341 bc
2nd samnite war 327-304/3 bc
3rd samnite war 298-290 bc
battle of caudine forks painful lesson for romans in phalanx warfar by the samnites in 321 bc on a mountainous terrain
"under the yoke" driven naked, like cattle, by the samnites, after battle of caudine forks
where does pyrrhus come from epirus
pyrric victory a victory that costs so much (men) it doesnt seem like an actual win
when tarentum needed help who did they ask? alexander the greats second cousin pyrrhus
1st punic war 264-241 bc
when was veii sacked? 396 bc
where did the punic wars take place in carthage, north Africa
who governed syracuse hiero II
why do the romans never find peace Myth: dido cursed the romans because she felt like the was promised love that she never got Historians: socioeconomic reasons
Rome constructs a new fleet 261 bc, impressive for its size
who are the victors of the first punic war rome, only because the cathaginians ordered Hamilcar Barca not to deliver the last blow. wanted to save money on war ships for grain ships so they can continue along their trade routes
dates of second punic war 218-201 bc
hannibal one of the greatest generals antiquity had ever seen, forced into the role very early, started sleeping with the army in rough conditions at 9
carthago nova "new carthage" in present day spain, carthage lost many islands they traded with after the war but because of new territory they bounced back fast
3 major battles in 2nd punic war trebia (218), trasimene (217), cannae (216)
what great feat did hannibal do with his troops that still stumps historians treks over the alps in 218 bc in the dead of winter, loses about a 1/3 of his men
the battle of trebia romans army: 40,000 groups, romans lost 3/4th of their troops
what does magos detachment do to the romans attacks the flank of the roman army when they leave their superior encampment to go attack Hannibal's army
battle of lake Trasimene romans lost about 30.000 meant, 6,000 enslaved
the battle of Cannae romes over confidence, 80,000 soldiers
Fabius maximus and attrition completely alter the way the romans fight with hannibal, just wear down hannibals army
cannae small fortress town
hannibals army at the battle of cannae about 1/2 size of romans army, infantry in the century, calvary takes the wings, traps romans in a semi circle
outflanking the romans at battle of cannae 70,000 romans perish, bloodiest battle in antiquity
romans regroup after battle of cannae back to a war of attrition
publius cornelius scipio (scipio africanus, scipio the elder) meets hannibal at Naraggara, a three day war march west of zama
the battle of zama 202 bc injured war elephants are angry and confused and start attacking hannibals own men
upon hannibals return to carthage... put in high government spot and brought carthage uo from the bottom
why was hannibal forced into exile romans demand it once they become allies
what was the consualia in honor of neptune and their horses
what happened at the consualia all the sabine women were taken at the chariot races and all the sabine men ran off
circus maximus the most popular place for chart races to take place, Tarquin the elder had to empty the swamp area of malaria, arena 12x size of colosseum
when did the chariot races at circus maximus become official 366 bc
most popular chariot races consualia (consus/neptune) and Equirria (mars)
what was different about the greeks and the roman/etruscans when chariot racing the greeks held the reigns in their hands and steered this way, the roman/etruscans wrapped them around their body and steered with their body so they could hold a whip and a knife (could also maybe whip other charioteers
what protective gear was worn in chariot races knife, crop or whip, leg wrappings, padded tunic
Biga 2 horse team, smaller chariot used by younger and more inexperienced charioteers
quadriga 4 horse team
what were the chariots made of leather and wood
curus circensis lighter chariot build for speed, not durable
how did they feel toward the horse loved the horses more than the racers
horses for racing usually started racing at 5 yrs, best were smaller lighter horses from africa
venationes beast show
what did Ceasar do to the circus maximus increased seating up to 150,000 spectators, adds moat to protect from beasts
what did agustus do for the circus maximus added seating options for dignitaries
carceres automated starting gates, added 329 bc, 12 total (some large enough for 20 total), 165 m from turning post
what was the spina the column down the circus maximus, tilted slightly so it was not in the center (this relulted in lots of crashes, used to display statues gods and goddesses
metae tuning posts in circus maximus, where lap counters were
when was the permanent amphitheater developed late republic
wht entertainment was had at the amphitheater water displays, venation's, gladiatorial
where was the amphitheater invented? in campania
when was the first perpanant amitheater created? 30 or 29 bc by T. Statilius Taurus, made of wood and stone, called "theatric kunegetikon", burned down in fire
flavian amphitheater Colosseum, located at neros domus aurea "neros golden house", statue called colossus which transformed into the colosseum
what was the seating capacity at the amphitheater? 45,000-55,000
what was 12 meters underneath the arena? storage for props, animals, housing things
cavea where all of the roman spectators were seated
ima lowest part of the cavea, reserved for senators, priest, royal family
media middle part of the cavea
summa cavea highest portion of cave, where woman and slaves sat (keep the woman as far away from the gladiators so that they would not get to into the sex symbols of them)
velarium giant onning stretched over the top of the colosseum, provided protection from the sun, was also decorated with painted scenery to add more to the stories
sparsiones sprinklings made made everything smell better
missilia "things thrown" food or money given out to the crowd by being hurled at them
what was the use of secuirt at the amphitheater to make sure the fans, or what ever was going on in the arena, didn't get too out of hand
edicta munerum programs that were written on the walls of the city to be informed what would be happening soon
libelli munerari pamplets sold on the streets letting one know what evens were happening, who was putting it on, gladiators names, ect.
venationes animal shows and displays (animals doing tricks, people fighting animals,
ludi meridiani executions, happened around lunch time
the main course of events gladiators
pompa the official parade
vivarium where wealthy people housed a great number of animals from other lands
lex tulia de ambitu magistrates weren't allowed to host a gladiatorial event two years before they re run for elections because of the great costs
how many times must a magistrate host a gladiatorial game during office once
1st gladiator definition one who fights with a sword (glades)
2nd gladiatorial definition one who fights in an arena against another in single combat
what did gladiatorial sword fighting transform into daggers and helmets
scutum very large round or rectangle shield
who were the very first gladiators? the samnites (samnes) around 309 bc in the 2nd samnite war
what did the samnites wear? scutum, leather legging on left leg, short sword with a pointed blade or lance, helmet with visor, crest and feathers (galea)
hoplomachus not east to identify, similar tho the thracian, fought in heavy armor
thracian had small squarish shield (parmula), armband on right arm, high leggings, tall crested helmet, short sword, curved or angled
retiarius tridents and short sword, armband on left arm
leges gladiatoriae gladiatorial laws
who put on the games magistrates or local citizens if its approved by someone higher up
why were the games thrown to honor the dead, inauguration of a public movement, military victories, the emperor of the imperial family
editor the person who payed for the games
lanista the gladiator pimp
ludi the school where the gladiators were held, free to roam around, given food and medical treatment
how were gladiators chosen most were POW and slaves, could win their freedom
auctorati people who willing enter to be a gladiator
rudiarii those who were once gladiators and were now free
gladiatrices woman gladiator
probatio armorum checks the quality of all the armor
how many games ended in death was only supposed to be about 50%, later moved to 5-10%
missum "let him be free" if the croud choose for him to be spared when someone surrenders
pollicem "throat him" kill him when he surrenders
munera sine missione games where the option to spare the gladiatiors life were not an option
P, M, V P=they died M=they were sparred V=victorious
famia fame and reputation
infamis if you were a free gladiator you couldnt ender political office
who were the etruscans depicted as? lovers of luxury, pirates, most authors blinded by negative bias
what were the etruscans not greek, latin, umbrian, language a mystery
what were other names for the etruscans tyrrhenioi, tyrreni/etrusci, rasenna
where were the ertuscans located tarquinia (italy)
how did the etruscans have contact with the greeks and phoenicians trade with north africa, romans, lots of iron copper and tin, thrived agriculturally
3 main etruscan gods tinia, Uni, Menerva
libri haruspicini determining what the gods wanted or were saying by looking at the inside of animal bodies
haruspicy/haruscopy looking into the liver
augury looking at bird flights to see prophecy
libri fulgurales told how to read the weather
libri rituales rituals and docterine
what is the possible 4th book assumed to be about animals and gods
etruscan opinion of greek athletics cover nude parts in loin cloths, not fond of nudity
etruscan influence on the romans chariot racing, gladatorial combat
game of phersu blindfolded guy tied to wild animal, had a club, looked upon by phersu, was it a sport? ritual? story?
etruscsn sport vs greek sport nudity, image associated with death, spectatorship, participation
sacrificium to numen if people wanted something they would sacrifice to the gods
pontifex maximus greatest bridge builder, created means by which humans and gods could interact, incredible amount of power
auspicia impertrativa you demand a question and the gods answer
auspici oblivia were not requested answers, are natural occurrences that told you to do something or not do something
sibylline books A prophet that wrote a series of books that told the future. She tried to sell the to Tarquin. He does not want to buy them from her so she starts burning them. Finally he ends up buying them and they turn out to be very useful.
archaic triad jupiter, mars, quirinus
jupiter son of saturn Iuppiter Pluvis:jupiter of the rain Iuppiter Lapis: Jupiter of the stone
mars same as greek ares, ag and warefare god
quirinus supposed to be representative of romans at large
capitoline triad after the romans had extensive connecions with etruscans, the gods carried over
janus gate keeper, protector of going and coming
six vestal virgin If they had sex they would dig a pit throw he in it, give her food water and light, so when she ran out it “wouldn’t” be their fault
lares Protective ghosts/spirits of the field
feriae integral to the citys health, priesthood
fasti official roman festival calendar
lundi public public games
ludi circenses chariot races
ludi scaenici theatrical games
lupecalia cleansing process (strips of skin from goat/used as whips/wrapped around thighs
saturnalia Destruction of social barrier/wearing same cloths/talking to everyone
evacatio proclamation stating that the roman’s would destroy everything so get out while you can
devotio if generals were having difficulty in battle they would make a sacrifice to the gods by sacrificing himself and other soldiers
apotheosis emperor becoming a god-many people felt uncomfortable placing too much power in the hands of hte emperor
divus-god-like initial emperor was called this, but only could be appointed by the senate and only after death
what has been least useful in finding out about etruscan life? their language
what has been most useful in getting info about etruscan life? their tombs
what sport was found best in the tomb of the augers? wrestling
rhea silvia is forced to a life of virginity when... amulius forces her to become a vestal virgin
who was romulus' and remus' dad? the god Mars
what was Hannibal's biggest struggle which helped with his defeat limited supplies
who was agustus nephew of julius ceased, after he kills mark antony he takes the name agustus the emperor
what is a triumph precession in rome, public recognition of a general of someone special foe what they had done in a foreign war
when were trials held? to have favor with the people and the gods and state were glorified, highest honor for a man. Only 300 were held
requirements to receive a trial · Had to be victories in a foreign war. Had to be assigned to a certain territory. Could not just go out and declared war. · Had to have had killed 5000 enemies. · Had to be granted imperium by soldiers in battle
what was the first step of the triumphal procession conquered generals killed, normal excecution
what happened second in the triumphal procession roman generals reminded people all that rome had gained, parades depicted battles and all the soils they gained
what happened third in the triumphal procession a token number of troops. They did not want to have too many people, more important did not want to frighten the Senate.
what was the final step of the triumphal procession The person that earned the Triumph entered o Had slave following him telling him to remain humble. Early Triumphators
who was the first triumphator romulus, founder of rome
who was declined by the senate to triumph scorpio africanus after he defeated hannibal in 2nd pelopinisian war, they thought he had gained too much power
how often did chariot races occur 24 per day,
who were the people that set up the chariot races and organized them factiones
who were the employees of the races stable boys, saddlers, vets, doctors, water boys
marcus aurelius polyneices greek who earned freedom, raced in all the faction, was known for driving 6 and 8 horse chariots
gaius appuleius diocles began at 28 and died at 42. won 1400
Created by: 100000485564436