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Genetics quiz

Trait Characteristic an organism may pass on to its offspring through its genes. Examples: eye color and height
allele Different forms of a gene. For example, the gene that controls stem height in peas has one allele for tall stems and one allele for short stems.
gene Factor that controls a trait.
genotype An organism's genetic make-up or its allele combinations
phenotype An organism's physical appearance.
homozygous A organism that has two identical alleles for a trait.
heterozygous An organism that has two different alleles for a trait. Also can be called a "hybrid" organism.
hybrid An organism that has two different alleles for a trait. Also can be called a "heterozygous" organism.
punnett square A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross.
probability A number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur. It can be expressed as a percentage or a fraction.
dominant allele The alleles that always appears in the organism when the allele is present.
recessive allele An allele that shows up in an organism only if a dominant allele is not present.
codominant Situation in which alleles are neither dominant or recessive, such that both alleles are represented in the offspring.
Whose discoveries formed the foundation of genetics? Gregor Mendel, a 19th century priest. Studied the traits of pea plants. He discovered genes and alleles. Before this, people thought that the traits of an organism were simply a blend of their parents' characteristics.
genetics the scientific study of heredity
heredity the passing of physical characteristics from parents to offspring
fertilization joining of an egg and sperm
purebred organism the offspring of many generations that have the same trait -- purebred short pea plants always come from short parent plants
technique that Mendel used to study genetics of pea plants cross pollinization -- he removed pollen from a flower on one plan and brushed it onto the flower of a second plant.
genetic disorder an abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes.
What can cause genetic disorders? Mutations in the DNA of genes or changes in the overall structure or number of chromosomes
pedigree a chart or "family tree" that tracks which embers of a family have a particular trait.
karyotype a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell
what do genetic counselors do? they help couples understand their chances of having a child with a particular genetic disorder. They use karyotypes, pedigree charts, and punnett squares.
selective breeding the process of selecting organisms with desired traits to be parents of the next generation -- e.g., seeds from the healthiest plants
inbreeding crossing 2 individuals that have similar characteristics. e.g., plump, fast growing turkeys
hybridization crossing 2 genetically different individuals -- bred to have the best traits from both parents. e.g. corn that produces many kernels and corn that is resistant to disease.
clone an organism that has exactly the same genes as the organism from which it was produced.
genetic engineering genes from one organism are transferred into the DNA of another organism. Sometimes bacteria are used to do this because they reproduce quickly
gene therapy involves inserting copies of a gene directly into a person's cells, to try to correct genetic disorders in humans
genome all the DNA in one cell of an organism
Goal of the Human Genome Project to identify the DNA sequence of every gene in the human genome
sperm the male sex cell or gamete
a yeast cell reproduces by... asexual reproduction -- budding
cell division that creates sex cells
bacterium reproduce by cell fission
starfish organism that can undergo regeneration of severed parts
egg female sex cell or gamete
meiosis cell division to replace damaged skin cells
What process would be used to produce corn that is taller and produces more ears than average? selective breeding
When an amoeba, a one-celled organism divides, this is an example of __________________ reproduction asexual
You are a multi-cellular organism. Where did all of your cells originate? 1 fertilized egg
vegetative propagation the ability of plants to reproduce without sexual reproduction, by producing new plants from existing vegetative structures.
budding a form of asexual reproduction of yeast in which a new cell grows out of the body of a parent.
binary fission a form of asexual reproduction in which one cell divides to form two identical cells
regeneration a form of asexual reproduction where an animal amputates its limb and that limb grows into a full animal that is genetically identical to the parent
runners horizontal stems
Created by: lblumberg