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Jewish Mid Term

(1) History of Jews in Poland For centuries Poland was a unique shleter for persecuted and expelled Jewish Communities
(2) History of Jews in Poland Under Boleslaus III (1102–1139), the Jews, encouraged by the tolerant régime of this ruler, settled throughout Poland
(3) History of Jews in Poland Jews came to form the backbone of the Polish economy
(4) History of Jews in Poland The talerant situation towards Jews was occassionally altered by the Cattholic Church and neighboring German States
(5) History of Jews in Poland Some of the reigning princes protected Jews...who considered them desireable for the economy
(6) History of Jews in Poland (in 1264) Boleslaus (prince of Great Poland) issued a General Charter of Jewish Liberties...which granted freedom of worship, trade, and travel
(7) History of Jews in Poland (1548-1572) Zygmunt II August followed tolerant policies towards Jews, and granted autonomy to Jews in the matter of Communal administration (laid the foundation for the power of the Kahal)
(8) History of Jews in Poland (by 1551) Jews were given permission to appoint their own Chief Rhabbi
(1) Jews of Poland Legal Status they had the best legal status in all of Europe
(2) Jews of Poland Legal Status less precarious # different charter (rights given by kings or princes) # did not need to be renegotiated # felt secure
(3) Jews of Poland Legal Status depended on Nobles and aristocrats for safety support # Nobles protected Jews from the Church and Peasants (1st charter 1264) # Nobles viewed a Jew as indespensible
(1) Jews of Poland Population Enormous growth in Jewish population in Poland
(2) Jews of Poland Population 1550...20,000 Jews # 1600...100,000 Jews # 1660...150,000 Jews # 1720...375,000Jews # 1765...750,000Jews
(3) Jews of Poland Population flourished demographically and culturally
(4) Jews of Poland Population Still seperate communities between Jews and Christians
(5) Jews of Poland Population Felt as if they lived in their own community # Didn't feel a minority b/c within the community which they rarely ventured from they were the majority # Jews were highly concentrated in towns owned by Nobles in eastern Poland
(6)Jews of Poland Population Fuedalism # most Jews in Europe lived in eastern Poland # Royal cities in western Poland restricted Jews # largest Jewish community # Jews migrated eastward in the late middle ages into Poland (from Germany and other States they had been expelled from)
(ID1a) Council of Four Lands Central body of Jewish Authority
(ID1b) Council of Four Lands In Poland (Great Poland, Little Poland, Ruthenia, Volhynia)
(ID1c) Council of Four Lands 1580 to 1764
(ID1d) Council of Four Lands Seventy delegaters from local Kehillah met to discuss taxation and other issues important to the Jewish Community)
(ID1e) Council of Four Lands Activity devided into four components (legislative, administrative, Judicial, Spiritual / cultural)
(ID1f) Council of Four Lands Importance: the outcome of which was their exemplary communal organization (constituted a unit of self-government)
ID1g) Council of Four Lands met twice a year
(ID2a) Chmielnicki Uprising 1648 to 1654
(ID2b) Chmielnicki Uprising lead by Bohdan Khmelnytsky
(ID2c) Chmielnicki Uprising Cossacks allied with Crimean Tartars and Ukrainian Peasantry rebelled against Polish-Lithuanian Nobles (Magnates)
(ID2d) Chmielnicki Uprising Importance: began a period of Polish History called Deluge (which included various other uprisings against the Polish Commonwealth (Nobles)
(ID2e) Chmielnicki Uprising Importance: Allowed elite members of the Commonwealth (elite Nobles) to make more money off less financial strong Nobles in the form of support / Killed many Jews and Nobles
(ID3a) Polish Magnates were a social class of wealthy and influential Nobility in the kingdom of Poland (and later became the Polsih-Lithuanian Commonwealth)
(ID3b) Polish Magnates Magnates (higher nobility) vied for political power with lesser and middle Nobility
(ID4a) Moses Mendelssohn German Jewish Philospher in the 18th century
(ID4b) Moses Mendlessohn translated the Torah into German
(ID4c) Moses Mendlessohn This book became the manual of the German Jews teaching them to write and speak in German
(ID4d) Moses Mendlessohn Importance: prepared German Jews for participation in German Culture and secular science
(ID5a) Sabbatean Movement Messianic movement from1665 to 1666, which believed Sabbatai Zvi was the Messiah
(ID5b) Sabbatean Movement Sabbatai Zvi was a Rhabi and a Kabbalist (he studied the Talmud and attended yeshiva as a youth), he was fascinated with mysticism and the Kabbalah
(ID5c) Sabbatean Movement He traveled to Smyrna, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Cairo
(ID5d) Sabbatean Movement he claimed he would lead back the Ten Lost Tribes to the Holy Land
(ID5e) Sabbatean Movement How he gained supporters...mortifying the body through frequent fasting, singing psalms all night with a meoldious voice, pray at graves of pious men and women, distrubuted meats on the streets to children, married an orphan / prostitute
(ID5f) Sabbatean Movement Dangerous b/c he broke Jewish Law (changed fasting days of the Seventeenth of Tammuz and the Ninth of Av into feasting days
(ID5g) Sabbatean Movement Importance: he inspired the founding of a number of other similar sects
(ID6a) Talmud record of Jewish disscussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, history
(ID6b) Talmud Two components: Mishnah & Gemara
(ID6c) Talmud Mishnah: Jewish Law (c. 200 CE)
(ID6d) Talmud Gemara: discussion of Mishnah and related Tannaitic...basis for all Rabbinic Law (c. 500 CE)
(ID7a) Yeshiva a Jewish institution for Torah study and thestudy of the Talmud
(ID7b) Yeshiva caters to boys and men (taught by Rhabbis)
(ID8a) Kabbalah is the mystical aspect of Judaism
(ID8b) Kabbalah it refers to a set of esoteric teachings meant to define the inner meaning of (1) Hebrew Bible and (2) traditional rabbinic literature, as well as explain the significance of Jewish religous observances
(ID9a) Zohar is a mystical commentary on the Torah (the 5 books of Moses)
(ID9b) Zohar is widely considered the most important work of Kabbalah
(ID9c) Zohar it contains: (1) mystical discussion of the nature of God, (2) origins and structure of the universe, (3) the nature of souls / sin / good and evil / redemption
(ID10a) Hasidism a pietistic movement which began in 18th century Poland
(ID10b) Hasidism Founded on 2 components: (1) Religous Panentheism (omnipresence of God), (2) Communion between God and Man (an unbroken intercourse take place between the world of God and the world of humanity)
(ID10c) Hasidism God influences man / Humanity influences the will of God
(ID11a) Tzadik (Rebbe) Hasidic Religous Leader
(ID12a) Hasidim Members of the Hasidic Movement
(ID13a) Mitnagdim Opponents of Hasidism
(ID14a) Tikkun means "repairing the world"
(ID14b) Tikkun Restoring sparks of Holy Light to God (when God created)
(ID14c) Tikkun will hasten the coming of the Messiah through pious deeds...which brings redemption (redemption is the completetion of God's act of creation)
(ID14d) Tikkun The Messiah will come when redemption is complete (this will end wars, bring Jews back to Isreal, form Monarchy under the descendents of King David)
(ID15a) Isreal Ben Eliezer (Baal Shem Tov) lived from 1698 to 1760 and was born in a small village in Poland
(ID15b) Isreal Ben Eliezer (Baal Shem Tov) Considered the foundered of the Hasidism Judaism Movement
(ID15c) Isreal Ben Eliezer (Baal Shem Tov) little is known about him b/c only his followers wrote of him after his death with legends of his miracles performed (many contend he was the right person, at the right time, in the right place)
(1) Traditional Rhabbis Rhabbis were judes of the Jewish Law (bear the law, make the law, teach the law)...monopoly on interpreting the law
(2) Traditional Rhabbis led school for Yeshivot (schools for boys)..not just rabbinic but to study the Talmud also
(3) Traditional Rhabbis Learning not just for elite, any man could become a Rhabbi
(1) Kehillah had a quasi-goernmental authority over both the Jewish Community and its relationship with tthe Gentiles (Nobles)
(2) Kehillah what is the Kehillah: The Jewish Council...it consisted of wealthy men most married and over the age of 25
(3) Kehillah what did it do: collected taxes for Christian Government (king prince, or gov't), was how individual Jews dealt with the Christian authorities
(4) Kehillah Christian Gov't saw Jews as a community, Jews couldn't exist outside the community, 1 Jew messed up...entire Jew community was punished
(5) Kehillah Tools of the Kehillah: ex-communication (very powerful), denied kosher meat, fines, corporal punishment
Created by: kbortnic