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Cell Biology Vocab

Science Cell Vocabulary

Photosynthesis The process by which plants and some other organisms capture the energy in sunlight and use it to make food
Respiration The process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain
Fermentation The process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen
Mitochondria Rod-shaped cell structures that produce most of the energy needed to carry out the cell's functions
Chloroplast A structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food
Krebs Cycle The sequence of reactions by which most living cells generate energy during the process of aerobic respiration
Cell The basic unit of structure and function in living things
Cell Membrane A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell
Nucleus A cell structure that contains nucleic acids, the chemical instructions that direct all the cell's activities
Nuclear Membrane Membrane surrounding the nucleus separating the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm
Endoplasmic Reticulum A cell structure that forms a maze of passageways i which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another
Cell Wall A rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms
Vacuole A water-filled sac inside a cell that acts as a storage area
Nucleolus Produces Ribosomes
Ribosomes A minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells
Golgi Body A structure in a cell that receives proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them, and distributes them of other parts of the cell
Lysosome A small round cell structure that contains chemicals that break down large food particles into small ones
Centrioles Cylindrical structures composed of groupings of microtubes
Pigment A colored chemical compound that absorbs light
Stomata Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
Chlorophyll A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria
Cell theory A widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things
Microscope An instrument that makes small objects look larger
Compound Microscope A light microscope that has more than one lens
Magnification The ability to make things look larger then they are
Convex Lens A curved lens in which the center is thicker than the edges
Resolution The ability to clearly distinguish the individual parts of an object
Created by: Wise_Girl