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NFS 207-Exam 3

Chapter 8, 9 & 10

Excess Energy -is stored fat used for energy between meals
Energy Balance -energy in = energy out -shift in balance causes weight change -1 lb = 3,500 cal
Hunger -Physiological response to nerve signals and chemical messengers -Influences: include hormones, nutrients in blood, preceding meal, external temperature, exercise and others
Satiation stop hunger
Satiety not to start eating again
Sustaining Satiety & satiation -nutrient composition
Nutrient composition -protein is the most satiating -High fiber foods satiating -Both give strong satiety signals -high fats foods: strong satiety but slower to work
Hypothalamus -control center for eating -integrates messages: energy intake, expenditure, storage -Biological molecules regulate food intake
Biological molecules -Ghrelin, adiponeptin, leptin
Energy Out Thermogenisis
Thermogenis -Basal metabolisms, physical activity, food consumption, adaptation
Basal Metabolism -about 2/3 energy expended & basic processes of life -Basic metabolic rate: indiv. variation, weight & lean tissue will increase
Physical activity -voluntary movement of skeletal muscle -amount of energy needed will increase with greater: muscle mass, body weight & activity -FITT influence
Thermic Effect of Food -Increase GI tract functioning in response to food presence: releases heat -10% of energy in take -high protein foods higher losses than high fat foods
High waist circumference -indicator of fat distribution & central obesity -Women: greater than 35 inch. -Men: greater than 40 inch.
Other techniques for body composition - more precise measurements -skinfolds, hydrostatic weighing, bioelectrical impedance, dexa, bodpod
Health risks associated with body fat & body weight -body weight & fat distribution correlated with disease risk & life expectancy -diabetes, hypertension, CVD & sleep apnea
Risks cause by being underweight -fighting against wasting disease -menstrual irregularity & infertility -Osteoporosis & bone functioning
Fat cell development -stored in fat cells of adipose tissue -Fat cells increase in number during childhood & puberty -energy out exceeds energy in: decrease size & no change in #
Gene code for Leptin protein's affect on obesity -made in adipose tissue as hormone in hypothalamus -promotes negative energy balance -suppresses appetite & increase energy expenditure
Uncoupling proteins -proteins involved in metabolism -higher in brown adipose tissue -results in greater loses of energy as heat
Agressive treatments for obesity: Orlistat -inhibits pancreatic lipase in GI tract -blocks dietary fat digestion & absorption -side effects: gas, frequent bowel movements
Agressive treatments for obesity: Phentermine and diethylpropion -enhances release of neurotransmitter -norepinepherine release to brain & reduces food intake -Side effects: High blood pressure & insomnia
Agressive treatments for obesity: Surgery -clinically serves obesity -reduce food capacity in stomach: gastric bypass or banding -effectively limits food intake -Liposuction: reduce deposits by removing fat cells
Eating plans -remember water -focus on fiber: low in energy but high in nutrients -choose fats sensibly: lower fat lowers density -select carb carefully -watch for empty cals
Vitamin Overview -support nutritional health -Differ from macronutrients: Structure & function (no energy yield) -composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen & nitrogen -toxicity: more not always better, levels higher than UL cause problems -
Overall Vitamin B's -coenzymes assist with release of energy -with coenzymes, most enzymes cant function
Thiamin -deficiency: Malnourishment & alcoholics -Beriberi disease: dry (nervous system) & wet (cardiovascular system) -Toxicity: no adverse effects or UL
Riboflavin -major food sources: milk & milk products -Destruction: ultraviolet light, irradiation -not destroyed by cooking
Niacin -Body manufactures from tryptophan: only occurs after protein synthesis needs have been met -deficiency: Pellagra (diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia)
Niacin toxicity -naturally occurring: no harm -supplements: niacin "flush" -large doses of nicotinic acid: reduces LDL's -less vulnerable to food preparations losses
Biotin -adequate intake is to difficult to determine -Deficiencies: rare because found in many foods, can be induced by eating large amount of egg whites & results in skin rash + hair loss -toxicity: no UL
Pantothenic Acid -part of chemical structure of Coenzyme A -role in body: energy metabolism, synthesis of fat & neurotransmitters -recommendation: AI -Deficiency: rare because widespread in many foods -toxicity: no UL, none reported
B6 -recommendation RDA -Deficiency: symptoms= neurological, depression, confusion, anemia -alcohol & isoniazid can reduce deficiency -toxicity: irreversible nerve damage, -best food sourced= meat, poultry, fish
Folate Deficiency -neural tube defects like spina bifida -Supplements: 1 month b4 conception & through 1st trimester -fortified grain products helpful -risk: may mask vitamin B12 deficiency
Folate in general -May prevent heart disease: breakdown of homocysteine, prevents blood clots -decrease risks of heart attack, stroke or death from CVD -Cancer: may prevent colon cancer, timing of supplements could increase risk if already cancer is initiated
Vitamin B12 -recommendations: RDA established -Deficiency: “Pernicious Anemia”, vegans may precipitate after long time -symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency
Created by: jessiedig