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Syphilis Hutchinson's triad - transplancental
gonorrhea eye infections in newborns - transcervical
ureplasmal urethritis spontaneous abortion - transplancental
Bacteriodes intra-abdominal abcess
Listeriosis spontaneious abortion, surviving newborn is acutely ill with septicemia and meningitis
lyme disease borreliosis- can cause miscarriages, still born, neonatal deaths
Diptheria metachromatic granules -picket fence shape -3rd deadliest toxin
Pertussis has endotoxin as part of cell wall and exotoxin produced in cytoplasm that damages tissues in area, attaches to cilia in trachea -reason why water fountains redesigned
Streptococcus pneumonia number one cause of meningitis
meningococcal meningitis deadliest meningitis
Streptococcus pneumonia meningitis pink/rusty sputum, common inhabitant of nasopharynx
Haemophilus influenza can cause otitis media, sinusitis, epiglottis, pink eye, meningitis
Brazilian purpuric fever causes purulent conjunctivitis and may lead to meningitis -caused by Heamophilus influenza
meningococcal meningitis Neisseria meningitides
Meningococcal meningitis starts as pharyngitis then in the blood then meningitis -can die in 2 hrs -stiff neck -deadliest meningitis
Waterhouse friedrichsen syndrome if neisseria meningitides affects adrenal gland, death in 10-12 hrs
Tuberculosis mycobacterium tuberculosis "consumption"
tuberculosis rust sputum -early tubercle to caseous to ghon complex -treat with INH (isoniazide)
Primary tb active
latent tb carriers, may develop tb
Granuloma lesion of tb
Ghon complex multiple granuloma, seen in tb, in lungs
BCG vaccine in Europe, will always have positive PPD
QFT-G test gives results similar to PPD but quicker and greater specificity
mycobacterium cheloni wound TB, arthritis, skin abrasions, not contagious
mycobacterium haemophilim immunocomprimised pts
Tuberculosis mycobacterium tuberculosis "consumption"
tuberculosis rust sputum -early tubercle to caseous to ghon complex -treat with INH (isoniazide)
Primary tb active
latent tb carriers, may develop tb
Granuloma lesion of tb
Ghon complex multiple granuloma, seen in tb, in lungs
BCG vaccine in Europe, will always have positive PPD
QFT-G test gives results similar to PPD but quicker and greater specificity
mycobacterium cheloni wound TB, arthritis, skin abrasions, not contagious
mycobacterium haemophilim immunocomprimised pts
mycobacterium avium-intracellulare associated with HIV
mycobacterium bovis cow TB, transmitted to humans via milk/food -seldom human to human -HUNCHBACK -used to be used for pasteurization
granuloma lesion of tb
ghon complexes multiple granuloma in tb lung
BCG in europe, always have positive PPD
QFT-G test results like PPD but quicker and greater specificity
mycobacterium cheloni wound tb, arthritis, skin abrasions, not contagious
mycobacterium haemophilum immunocompromised pt
mycobacterium avium-intracellulare associated with HIV
mycobacterium bovis cow tb, seldom human to human HUNCHBACK -used to be used for pasterurization
mycoplasma pneumonia walking pneumonia
mycoplasma pneumonia primary atypical pneumonia -no cell wall -fried egg appearance on cultures -can cause Raynaud's
Treatment of mycoplasma pneumonia arthromycin - can used penicillin (no cell wall)
Serratia marcescens pneumonia -nosocomial -transmitted through aspiration/ventilators
Burkholdia cepacia complex seen in serratia marcescens -important pathogen in pt with cystic fibrosis
Legionella pneumophilia infection after inhaling aerosol -resistant to chlorine
Mild form of legionella pontiac fever
Legionellosis Legionaires disease -resistant to chlorine -seen on cruises
Strep pyrogenes -most common, B hemolytic -has M protein
streptokinase dissolves fibrin clot
streptolysin destroys RBCs
klebsiella pneumonia nosocomial, resistant, gelatinous red brown sputum
pneumococcal pneumonia encapsulated chain of diplococci -caused by s. pneumonia
strep pyogenes strep skin infection -highly susceptible to penicillin -can also cause impetigo, flesh eating disease
erysipelas strep infection of skin -red patches, enlarge and swell
Puerperal sepsis complication of strep skin infection -infected uterus "childbed fever"
coagulase staph
coagulase forms fibrin clot which allows resistance to phagocytosis
hyaluronidase pneumococci, staph, strep
hyaluronidase allows tissue penetration
leukocidin strep, staph
leukocidin disintergrates phagocytes which limit phagocytosis
hemolysins clostridium, staph
m protein strep
M protein helps cell adhere to pharyngeal tissue and retards phagocytes
intoxication bacteria releases toxins into the environment (exotoxin) then you eat toxin
infection eat bacteria and it releases toxins (endotoxin)
bacillus aerobic
clostridium anaerobic
raw milk before pasteurization <200,000
pasteurization standards <100,000
Grade A 20,000 10 coliforms
Grade B 1 million before pasteurization 10 coliforms
certified raw 10,000 1 coliform
holding temp 62.9
holding time 30 seconds
flash temp 71.6
flash time 15 seconds
ultra temp 82
ultra time 3 seconds
ultra high temp 140
ultra high time 3 seconds
Parmalat after ultra high
botulism bacteria clostridium botulinum
botulism anaerobic bacillus neurotoxin found in dirt destroyed by heating >90 for 10 min
infant botulism dont give honey SIDS
Type A botulism most virulent
Type B botulism European and eastern US
Type E botulism marine or lake, seafood in pacific NW, Alaska
Trivalent antitoxin of botulism most effective on E, C, D
Staph food poisoning staph aureus
staph aureus ptomaine food poisoning -ptomaine is foul smelling nitrogen in stool -has coagulase -found on custards, cream, mayo, ham
Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin -leading cause of food poisoning -generation time <20 min -can cause gas gangrene
typhoid bacteria salmonella typhi
typhoid treatment chloramphenicol - bad because can cause aplastic anemia, depress bone marrow
typhoid transmitted by 5 F's (flies, fingers, feces, fomites, food) -worst of all salmonellas -WIDAL test -carry in gall bladder -rose spots - ulcerates
Salmonella from typhoid -common in poultry, dont stuff!
Shiga toxin lambda phages -common source - shigella dysenteriae, E.Coli (STEC) -require highly specific recepters
First response to shiga toxin killing of cells lead to a breakdown of the lining and hemorrhage, causing blood diarrhea
Second response to shiga toxin -targets vascular endothelium of kidney leading to Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome -seen with shiga toxin -Shigella dysenteriae -E.coli
most common shigella S. sonnei
Shigella that secretes shiga toxin S. dysenteriae
Shigella exotoxin 8, proliferate in SI but damage to LI -can lead to post shigella reiter's syndrome (arthritis) or HUS
Cholera bacteria Vibrio cholerae
Cholera in human feces, Night soil -vibrio cholerae -rice water stools -fluid loss
travelers diarrhea bacteria e.coli
E.Coli 0157:H7 -produce shiga toxin -normally in intestines of cattle to help with vit K -FASTEST GENERATION TIME (20min) -can cause HUS
Campylobacter gastroenteritis microaerophilic sprillum -infective dose needed is much smaller than salmonella -can be mild or very severe -2nd most common cause of diarrhea in US
2nd most common cause of diarrhea in US campylobacter
helicobacter peptic ulcer disease -seen in type O ppl -acid resistant H. pylori
pseudomembranous colitis bacteria clostridium difficile
clostridium difficile anaerobic -cured by discontinuing antibiotics -can be nosocomial
brucella undulant fever -grow in macrophages -bacteria multiplies in uterus of infected animals -growth favored by carb mesoerythritol
undulating fever saddleback temp curve from bacteria brucella
vibrio parahaemolyticus similar to cholera but halophilic (salt water) -contaminated fish, shrimp, crabs
bacillus cereus runs course quickly, no fever, recovery 2 days -spores survive cooked foods (often after eating cooked rice)
major bacterial pollutant coliforms (E.coli)
gonyaulax red tide
paralytic mollusk poisoning bivalve mollusks during red tide lead to tingling, resp paralysis
Gambierdiscus toxicus consumed by small fish then larger
Ciguatera fish poisioning neurologic and muscular intoxicaiton - shark
scromboid fish poisoning histamine substance produced by proteus fish like tuna
most transmitted Std HPV
syphilis bacteria treponema pallidum
primary syphilis hard chancre, painless
secondary syphilis hair loss maliase, mild fever
gumma seen in secondary syphilis
syphilis transplancental 4th week hutchinsons triad -notched teeth, deaf, impaired vision
Tabes dorsalis seen in syphilis
Tabes dorsalis slow progessive degeneration of the posterior columns and nerve roots -Argyll Robertson pupils
syphilis test 1.FTA-ABS treponema glows 2.Wasserman test - complement fixation test
gonorrhea bacteria neisseria
gonorrhea discharge, gonococccal meningitis, transplancental gonococcal opthalmia neonatum -penicillin resistant -Gonococcal Reiters syndrome
complications of gonorrhea salpingitis, epididymitis
ureplasmal urethritis type of mycoplasma
ureplasmal urethritis nongonococcal but similar to gonorrhea -discharge is variable -complications - low sperm count, spontaneous abortions
Haemophilus ducreyi chancroid -swollen lymph nodes in groin -#1 std in europe
#1 std in europe haemophilus ducreyi
lymphogranuloma venerum bacteria clamydia trachomatis
chlamydia trachomatis infects lymphoid tissue -lesion without scar -then scar leads to edema of genital area and enlargement of genitals -rectal narrowing in females -lymphogranuloma venerum
vaginosis bacteria gardnerella vaginalis
vaginosis no significant inflammation, doesnt occur in males, occurs when pH vagina >5 -CLUE CELLS in discharge
Leprosy bacteria mycobacterium leprae
Leprosy grows at lower temp -foot pad of armadillos -Hansen's disease - skin contact, inhalation, crowded conditions
Globi seen in leprosy - disfiguring nodules all over body
Forms of leprosy 1.tuberculoid- neural, least offensive 2.Lepromatous- progressive, deformities
incubation period of leprosy 2-6 years
treatment of leprosy Dapsone
Staph aureus toxins 1.coagulase - forms fibrin clot 2.capsule - promotes colonization 3.hyaluronidase - invasin that promotes spread in tissues 4.leukocidin - lyse cell membranes kinases, hemolysins, leukotoxin
Most common cause for skin and soft tissue infections staph aureus
staph aureus folliculitis (pimple) -furuncle (serios follicle infection - boil) -carbuncle (many boils) -cellulitis -impetigo
scalded skin syndrome seen in staph
scalded skin syndrome exfoliative toxin causing skin to come off - sunburn type rash) -usually lesion around mouth/nose -infected areas peel off in sheets
toxic shock syndrome seen in staph and strep pyogenes
toxic shock syndrome 1.early - rapid fever, sore throat, sunburn like rash 2.peeling of skin 3. sudden drop in BP can add to shock
strep skin infection strep pyogenes
Strep pyogenes hemolysin toxin, highly susceptible to penicillin
erythrogenic toxin from strep pyogenes -causes scarlet fever -bright red tongue, sore throat, rash
ervsipelas strep skin infection
ervsipelas eruptions into reddish patches that enlarge and swell at margins -skin outbreak usually preceded in body by strep infection
Yaws non-syphilitic treponema -skin contact with infected victim
mother yaws 1st raised lesion and raspberry color (frambesia)
Actinomyces israelli LUMPY JAW -enters gums during dental extraction -SULFUR GRANULES collect, turn lumpy
Nocardia asteroides abscessed foot - Madura food -TB like fever, cough, bloody sputum, cutaneous and pulmonary
Bacteriodes #1 agent for intra abdominal abscess
Bacteriodes intestinal injury, gangrene, anaerobic
Domestic animal bites Pasteurella multicida
Rat Bite Fever needs 2 bacteria, streptobacillis and spirillum -inflammation of lymph nodes
Cat Scratch fever bacteria Bartonella
cat scratch fever swelling of lymph nodes -Bartonella
Anthrax bacteria bacillus anthracis
anthrax aerobic spores in dirt
two forms of anthrax 1.cutaneous - abrasion or cut -> pustules, boil like lesion with black crust 2.pulmonary - inhale endospores, high fever, septicemia, flu like symptoms
When does blood clot like coal? pulmonary anthrax
Woolsorter disease and sheepshearer disease anthrax
tetanus bacteria clostridium tetani
clostridium tetani -tetanospasmin - neurotoxin blocks relaxation -lockjaw -2nd deadliest toxin to man
Gas gangrene bacteria clostridium perfringens
Clostridium perfringens Gas gangrene - anaerobic -complication in diabetes
Leptospirosis bacteria Leptospira interrogans
Leptospirosis -spirochete with hooks -urine contaminated soil/water/rodent -TULIPS
Phase 1 of Leptospirosis gets into blood, headache, muscle ache, chills, fever for days
Phase 2 of Leptospirosis throughout body, kidneys, heart, neuro and liver become seriously infected
Weil's Disease from Leptospirosis -kidney invasion - kidney failure -can also cause meningitis
Listeriosis bacteria Listeria monocytogenes
Listeriosis proliferation of monocytes -excreted in animal feces -Foodborne - dairy and processed meat, can grow at refrigerator temp -Causes meningitis -affects immunosuppressed, cancer, transplancental -if not treated with penicillin, death in 4 days
Meloidiosis bacteria pseudomonas pseudomallei
Meloidiosis rare in US from Viet Nam vets -soil contaminated wounds -can remain dormant for years, disease triggered by immunosuppression, surgery, influenza
Bubonic plague yersina pestis
Bubonic plague swollen lymph nodes in arms and groin, become necrotic and turn blue -death within a week of symptoms -often first step of a progressive series of illnesses -often from rat/rat fleas
Bubos swollen lymph nodes (seen in Bubonic plague)
Pneumonic plague worse form of bubonic plague -rapid onset -induced coughing, very infectious, hemoptysis, hematuria
Lenticulae black dots scattered throughout body seen in bubonic plague
Tularemia bacteria Francisella tularemia
Tularemia zoonotic -RABBIT FEVER -regional lymph nodes swell -contracted through skinning rabbits, ingestion of infected undercooked meat -bacteria survives in phagocytes
Lyme disease bacteria borrelia bergdof
Lyme disease Lyme borreliosis -borrelia bergdof - lyme titers test -spirochete carried by deer and field mice
most common tickborne disease in US lyme disease
Phase 1 of lyme disease ECM - Erythema Chronicum Migrans - bulls eye rash
Phase 2 of lyme disease meningitis, encephalitis, BELLS PALSY, heart and all organs affected, arthritis
Congenital Lyme can cause miscarriage, stillborne, neonatal deaths (rare)
Relapsing fever Borrelia species ->except for the ones that carry lyme disease, all cause relapsing fever -greater during summer months -relapse every 3-10 days, each shorter and less severe
Created by: jjohrden16