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Soc 101-Ch 8

Sociology 101-Macionis Ch 8 12 ed

What is social stratification? A system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy.
What are the four principles of social stratification? 1. It is a trait of society not simply a reflection of individual differences. 2. It carries over from generation to generation. 3. It is universal but variable. 4. It involves not just inequality but beliefs as well.
What is social mobility? A change in position within the social hierarchy.
What percentage of all US income is possessed by the richest 20% of Americans? 47.8% of all US income is possessed by the richest 20% of Americans.
How much of all US income is possessed by the poorest 20% of Americans? 3.8% of all US income is possessed by the poorest 20% of Americans.
What percentage of all US wealth is possessed by the richest 20% of Americans? 85% of all US wealth is possessed by the richest 20% of Americans.
Who possesses less than 1% of all US wealth? Poorest 20% of Americans.
What percentage of all US wealth is possessed by the poorest 60% of Americans? 5% of all US wealth is possessed by the poorest 60% of Americans.
What are the three factors that largely determine social and economic standing in America? 1. Ancestry 2. Race/Ethnicity 3. Gender
What is income? Earnings from work or investments.
What is wealth? Total value of money and other assets minus outstanding debts.
In addition to income, what is another important source of social prestige? Work and occupational prestige.
What four divisions comprise America's class system? 1. Upper class 2. Middle class 3. Working class 4. Lower class
What is difference between upper-uppers and lower-uppers? Upper-uppers: 1. Inherited money 2. Spend much time managing their money 3. Are considered the elite Lower-uppers: 1. Are self-made rich people 2. Did not inherit money but instead earned it 3. Rarely achieve access to elite circles of upper-uppers
What is difference between upper-middles and average-middles? Upper-middles: 1. Often involved in local politics 2. 2/3 of children graduate from college 3. 1/3 of children have graduate degrees Average-middles: 1. Work less prestigious white collar jobs 2. Chances 50/50 for children to graduate from college
What are the chances a working-class (or lower-middle) child will graduate college? 1 in 3.
What are some aspects of health that social stratification affects? 1. Children born to poor families twice as likely to die of disease, accident, or violence. 2. Longevity-richer people live about 5 years longer. 3. They eat more nutritious food, live in safer less stress environments, and receive better medical care.
What are some values/attitudes that mark upper-uppers? Lower-uppers? Upper-uppers: 1. Strong sense of family 2. Understated manner and tastes Lower-uppers: 1. Ostentatious spending 2. Conspicuous spending as status symbols
What aspects of life are affected by social stratification? 1. Health 2. Education 3. Values/Attitudes 4. Politics 5. Family and gender
Define intragenerational social mobility. A change in social position occurring during a person's lifetime.
Define intergenerational social mobility. Upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents.
Define horizontal social mobility. Changing jobs at the same class level.
What are the four general conclusions about social mobility that research shows? 1. Over the past century it has been fairly high. 2. Within a single generation it is usually small. 3. The long-term trend in soc-mob has been upward. 4. Since the 70s it has been uneven.
What is feminization of poverty? The trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor.
Define gender. The personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male.
What is gender stratification? The unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women.
What are gender roles? Attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex.
What is the glass ceiling? A barrier to women's careers that is not easy to see and results from perceptions that women are incapable of performing certain jobs such as miner or corporate executive.
What is a minority? Any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates.
What did Talcott Parsons believe about gender? What sociological theory does this fall under? That gender helps integrate, organize, and structure social life in its traditional form. Structural-Functional Theory.
What does Social-Conflict Theory state about gender? That gender is a structural system of power that provides privilege to some and disadvantage to others.
What about capitalism did Friedrich Engles think increased gender stratification? 1. Creates more wealth which gives greater power to men as income earners/owners of property. 2. Depends on turning women into consumers who seek personal fulfillment by buying and using products. 3. Women take care of home so men can work in factories.
What are the five basic feminist ideas? 1. Taking action to increase equality. 2. Expanding human choice. 3. Eliminating gender stratification throughout society. 4. Ending sexual violence. 5. Promoting sexual freedom.
What is feminism? Support of social equality for women and men, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism.
What is race? Socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important.
What is ethnicity? Shared cultural heritage.
What is the share of total population for Hispanic descent? 16.4%
What is the share of total population for African descent? 13.0%
What is the share of total population for Native American descent? 0.8%
What is the share of total population for Asian or Pacific Island descent? 4.9%
What is the share of total population for West Indian descent? 0.9%
What is the share of total population for Arab descent? 0.5%
What is the share of total population for Non-Hispanic European descent? 63.8%
What is the share of total population for two or more races? 2.7%
Define prejuduce. Rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people.
What is a stereotype? Simplified description applied to every person in some category.
What patterns of social distance does the Bogardus Scale show among college students today? 1. Greater social acceptance. 2. Seeing less difference between various minorities. 3. 9/11 may have reduced acceptance of Arabs/Muslims.
What is discrimination? Unequal treatment of various categories of people.
What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination? Prejudice has to do with attitudes, discrimination is a matter of action.
Define institutional prejudice and discrimination. Bias built into the operation of society's institutions.
What is pluralism? A state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing.
What is assimilation? The process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture.
What is segregation? The physical and social separation of categories of people.
What is genocide? The systematic killing of one category of people by another.
Created by: alleneby