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NWHSU HISTO 1 FINAL

QuestionAnswer
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This muscle type is cylindrical shaped. Skeletal
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This muscle type is spindle shaped. Smooth
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This muscle type is branched (Y) shaped. Cardiac
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This muscle type has the the biggest cells. Skeletal
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This muscle type is medium sized. Smooth
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This muscle type has the smallest cells. Cardiac
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This/These muscle type(s) has/have hypertrophy. All 3
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This/These muscle type(s) has 1 nuclei. Smooth and Cardiac
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This/These muscle type(s) has/have multiple nuclei. Skeletal
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This/These muscle type(s) has/have peripheral nuclei. Skeletal
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This/These muscle type(s) has/have centrally located nuclei. Smooth and Cardiac
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This/These muscle type(s) exhibit(s) striation. Skeletal and Cardiac
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This/These muscle type(s) does/do not exhibit striation. Smooth
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This/These muscle type(s) have arranged sarcomeres. Skeletal and Cardiac
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This/These muscle type(s) have myofilaments. All
Actin, Myosin, Tropomyosin, Troponin Which of these are thick filaments and which are thin filaments? Thick-Myosin Thin-Actin, Tropomyosin, Troponin
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This/These muscle type(S) contract(s) all at once. Cardiac and Smooth
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This/These muscle type(s) use(s) calmodulin to bind Ca++ instead of Troponin. Smooth
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, None This muscle types function is locomotion. Skeletal
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, None This muscle types function is line arteries, airways, and GI tract. Smooth
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, None This muscle types function is to contract to pump blood. Cardiac
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This/These muscle type(s) is/are involuntary. Smooth and Cardiac
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This/These muscle type(s) is/are voluntary. Skeletal
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac Where is each located. Skeletal-attached to skeleton (Platysma muscle) Smooth-Vasculature, arteries, hollow viscera, uterus, bladder, GI tract, Erector Pili Cardiac-Only heart
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This/These muscle type(s) exhibit(s) complete endomysium. Skeletal
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This/These muscle type(s) has/have gap junctions to communicate between cells. Smooth and Cardiac
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, None Which muscle type(S) contain(s) Motor End Plates and which contain(s) intercalated disks? Skeletal-Motor End Plates Cardiac-Intercalated Disks
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This/These muscle type(s) use(s) Ca++ mostly intracellular. Skeletal and Cardiac
D-Ireg CT Perimysium, LCT Endomysium, D-Ireg CT Epimysium This CT is wrapped around the entire muscle. D-Ireg CT Epimysium
D-Ireg CT Perimysium, LCT Endomysium, D-Ireg CT Epimysium This CT is wrapped around a bundle of fibers. D-Ireg CT Perimysium
D-Ireg CT Perimysium, LCT Endomysium, D-Ireg CT Epimysium This CT is wrapped around one fiber. LCT Endomysium
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac, All, None This/These muscle type(s) exhibit(s) endomysium. All 3 (All 3 have endomysium but ONLY skeletal muscle has Complete endomysium)
Red 1, Red 2, White 2, All, None This/These muscle fiber(s) has/have fast contraction speed. Red 2 and White 2
Red 1, Red 2, White 2, All, None This/These muscle fiber(s) has/have a strong aerobic metabolism. Red 1 and Red 2
Red 1, Red 2, White 2, All, None This/These muscle fiber(s) has/have lots of myoglobin, lots of mitochondria, and slow tonic contraction. Red 1 and Red 2
Red 1, Red 2, White 2, All, None This/These muscle fiber(s) has/have few myoglobin, few mitochondria, and has/have fast phasic contractions. White 2
Red 1, Red 2, White 2, All, None This/These muscle fiber(s) is/are for posture and endurance. Red 1-Posture Red 2-Endurance
Red 1, Red 2, White 2, All, None This/These muscle fiber(s) is/are for short bursts of energy. White 2
Red 1, Red 2, White 2, All, None This/These muscle fiber(s) have/has a weak aerobic metabolism. White 2
Red 1, Red 2, White 2, All, None This/These muscle fiber(s) are found in back muscles. Red 1 and Red 2 (Aerobic Red)
Red 1, Red 2, White 2, All, None This/These muscle fiber(s) are found in fingers, feet, arms, and legs. White 2 (Anaerobic White)
Red 1, Red 2, White 2, All, None Most muscle types contain this/these fiber(s). Mixed Fibers (White and Red)
Red 1, Red 2, White 2, All, None This/These muscle fiber(s) contain(s) more succinate dehydrogenase+. (An enzyme specific to mitochondria) Red 1 and Red 2 (Aerobic Red)
CNS, PNS, Both, Neither This can recover from a major accident. PNS
If CNS cannot recover after a CNS injury then how does a person recover from a stroke? Plasticity (Neurons nearby in CNS take over the dead neurons jobs)
Flacid Peralisis or Spastic Peralisis Which happens due to a bad peripheral nerve injury? Flacid Peralisis
People with CNS injuries have ____ reflexes. Explain why? Bigger relexes. (Hyperreflexia, spastic peralisis) They do not have control of them to stop the reflex from happening.
How many mm does a PNS neuron recover per day? 2 mm
True or False (Correct if wrong) Motor Unit=GSE axon and all the skeletal muscle cells it innervates. True
True or False (Correct if wrong) Lateral Corticospinal Tract is the pyramidal tract without decussation. False (With pyramidal decussation)
True or False (Correct if wrong) Excitatory synapse is when the action potential in the presynaptic cell increases the probability of action potential occurring in the post synaptic cell. True
True or False (Correct if wrong) Inhibitory synapse is when the presynaptic potential is the change of membrane voltage of a presynaptic neuron. False (Postsynaptic and Postsynaptic)
True or False (Correct if wrong) Large motor units may innervate up to 2000 cells. True
True or False (Correct if wrong) Small motor units may innervate as little as 1 muscle cell per axon. True
When the sympathetic system innervates an artery and causes excitation (depolarization), which happens: vasodilation or vasoconstriction? Vasodilation
True or False (Correct if wrong) In smooth muscle thin filaments are attached to alpha-actinin. True
This muscle type lacks sER which stores calcium within the scytoplasam. Smooth Muscle
How many spinal nerves are there and are they part of the PNS or CNS? 31 pairs PNS
Are the more myelinated or unmyelinated axons? Unmyelinated axons
Which is in the Dorsal root and ventral root:GSA and GSE Dorsal Root-GSA Ventral Root-GSE
Which is motor and which is sensory:Dorsal Root and Ventral Root Sensory-Dorsal Root Motor-Ventral Root
Ventral Primary Rami and Dorsal Primary Rami are: Motor, Sensory, or both D1R and V1R are Both Motor and Sensory
Preganglionic sympathetic axons vs Preganglionic parasympathetic axons: T1-L2 or S2-S4 Preganglionic sympathetic-T1-L2 Preganglionic parasympathetic-S2-S4
Which primary rami innervates the back and which innervates the neck, trunk, and extremities? Back-D1R Neck, trunk, and extremeties-V1R
The PNS is broken down into two categories, Autonomic and Somatic. Which one innervates each of the following: smooth muscles, glands, skeletal muscles autonomic-smooth muscle and glands somatic-Skeletal muscle
True or false (Correct if wrong) The Autonomic Nervous System uses one neuron between the CNS and target organ while the Somatic Nervous System uses two neurons. False (Autonomic uses 2 neurons, somatic uses 1 neuron)
The sympathetic system creates activity that supports a stress response while the parasympathetic system creates activity that ____. regulates a steady state or aids in protection
Spinal nerves innervate what? Walls and limbs
GSE, GVE, Both, Neither This is part of the CNS. Neither
GSE, GVE, Both, Neither This is part of the PNS. Both
GSE, GVE, Both, Neither This inervates Skeletal muscle. GSE
GSE, GVE, Both, Neither This inervates viscera, glands, smooth, and cardiac muscle. GVE
GSE, GVE, Both, Neither This has 1 neuron from the CNS to PNS GSE
GSE, GVE, Both, Neither This has pre and postganglionic Neurons. GVE
S2-S4, Cranial Nerves to S1, brain stem Which are parasympathetic and which are sympathetic. S2-4 and brain stem-parasympathetic Cranial nerves to S1-Sympathetic
Preganglionic axons travel to the white ramus and postganglionic axons travel to the gray ramus. This is a reference to the myelinated and unmyelinated nature of the axons. Which is myelinated and which is not? Preganglionic-Myelinated Postganglionic-Unmyelinated
Which spinal nerves exhibit:White Rami and Gray Rami. White Rami-T1-L2 Gray Rami-All Spinal Nerves
These neurons always have their origin int he CNS:Preganglionic or Postganglionic Preganglionic Neurons
These neurons always have their origin int he PNS:Preganglionic or Postganglionic Postganglionic Nerons
Sympathetics innervate erector pilli, sweat glands, and blood vessels while parasympathetics innervate what body wall? Erectile Tissue
Purkinje cells of the heart act as ____ cells, delivering the AP deep within the muscle tissue. Conduction
Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth Which have triads and which have diads? Skeletal-Triads Cardiac-Diads
Where are diads located? At Z-Line
Where are triads located? Between I-Band/A-Band Junction
Which has two terminal cisternae and which has one terminal cisterna: Dyads, Triads Dyads-1 terminal cisterna Triads-2 terminal cisternae
Conduct action potential deep into cells because AP is the voltage change necessary to open the voltage dependent Ca++ channels in the ___. sER
Which muscle type has the most sER? Skeletal
Match A-Band, I-Band, M-Line, H-Zone, Z-Line:Dark band, lihter band, line in the middle of h, lightest line in A Band, Darkest line in I band A-Band=Dark Band I-Bnad=light band M-line=line in the middle of H H-Zone=lightest line in A band Z-Line=darkest line in I band
I, A, H, Z, M:Thick filament, thin filament, or both I-thin A-both H-thick Z-thin M-thin
Which two get smaller when the muscle contracts? I, A, H, Z, M I and H
Which limits the contraction? I, A, H, Z, M A-Band
The action potential is conducted on the GSE axon to the terminal where it causes the release of ______________? nerotransmitters
Once the ___________ is released, it binds receptors at the motor end plate. This causes depolarization of the skeletal muscle cell membrane. acetylcholine
Fast EPSPs may summate to threshold, causing voltage-gated ____ channels to open, thus resulting in action potential. Sodium
The calcium will bind the high affinity binding sites on _____ causing the tropomyosin to be removed from the active binding sites on _________. Troponin, Actin
ATP is required for muscle _____. There are three sites ATP is needed: ________, ________, and _______. Relaxation Action Potential, Ca2+ pump, Actin filaments.
Troponin binds what three things? Calcium, actin, and tropomyosin
Calcium is stored in dyads and triads. What muscle types are those found in again and where? Triads-Skeletal (I/A Junction) Dyads-Cardiac (Z line)
At rest K+ is slightly greater than K+ electrical gradient. This drives K+ ___ the cell through passive channels that best accomodate the K+ size. Out of
NA+ is driven ____ the cell by both its concentration and electrical gradients. into
Depolarization is teh decrease in the difference in charge between the inside and outside -70mV. This leads to EPSPs which are what? (less neg inside) Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potentials
Hyperpolarization is increasing the difference of charge between the inside and ouside of the membrane. Moving from 70mV to 90mV. (By specific chemically dependent channels) This leads to IPSP which is what? (more neg inside) Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potentials
What can only be generated where there are voltage dependent ion channels (specific for NA or K)? Action Potential
Cell bodies are found in white and gray matter. True or false False Only gray matter
In the nervous system what are the "functional cells" and what are the "supporting cells". Neurons-functional cells neuroglial cells-supporting cells
Everything surrounding the cell body is what? Neuropil
What is the most common neuron? multipolor neuron
CNS, PNS, Both, Neither Multipoloar Neurons Both
CNS, PNS, Both, Neither Psuedopolar neuron PNS
Motor, Sensory, Both, Neither Multipolar neurons Both
Motor, Sensory, Both, Neither Psuedounipolar neurons only sensory (only primary afferent neurons
Examples of CNS multipolar neuron cells. Pyramidal cell, perkinji cells, tract cells, Interneurons
Examples of PNS multipolar neuron cells. Spinal Motor Neuron-GSE Pre Post Ganglionic-GVE
Do Multipolar Neurons contain axons and dendrites? Do they branch and where? Yes, branch at end. Yes lots of dendrites and spines.
Do Psudopuniolar neurons contain axons and dendrites? Do they branch and where? Yes, they branch right away. No
Psuedounipolar neurons can contain more than 1 axon. True or false False. No Neuron has more than one axon!!
Myelin is made by what cells in the PNS and what cells in the CNS? PNS-Schwann Cells CNS-Oligodendrocytes
Axons, Dendrites, Both, Neither Can do their own protein synthesis Dendrites only
The axon hillock does what? Generates action potential S
Axon Terminals store what? Nerotransmitters
Pyramidal and extrapyramidal neurons start in the cortex? True or false False Pyramidal start in Cortex Extrapyramidal start in the cerebelum
Extrapyramidal neurons influence what? GSE and GVE (Unconscious)
The extrapyramidal neurons may or may not cross at the decussation. True or false True
Lateral Corticospinal Tract crosses at the decussation of pyramids and innervates which muscle:appendicular or axial appendicular
Anterior Corticospinal tract does not cross at the decussation of pyramids and inervates which muscle:appendicular or axial axial
nissl substance is basophillic beause of Ribosomes. True or false true
Satalite cells completely surround this while they are interupted in this:DRG, Autonomic Ganglion Completely surround DRG Interupted around Autonomic Ganglion
Large cell bodies are for what? Are their axons myelinated or not? Touch and proprio Myelinated axons
Small cell bodies are for what? Are their axons myelinated or not? Pain and Temp Unmyelinated axons
DRG, Autonomic ganglion, Both, Neither These have many satellite cells and a centrally located nucleus. DRG
DRG, Autonomic ganglion, Both, Neither These have interrupted satellite cells and a peripherally located nucleus. Autonomic Ganglion
Purkinje neurons are examples of extrapyramidal neurons which mediate _____ motor activity. Unconscious
Dorsal horn gray matter is sensory, motor, or both? Sensory
Ventral horn gray matter is sensory, motor, or both? Motor
Axons, Astrocytes, and Oligodendrocytes are found in White, gray matter, or both? Both
What are 2 names for a cell body? Soma and perikaryon
CNS exhibits regular CT coverings like endo, peri and epineurium. True or false False. The entire perimeter of the CNS is protected by CT coverings called Dura, arachnoid, and pia mater.
The only point of confluence between PNS and CNS Ct is at the juncture between the epineurium of the ____ and the dura of the ____ spinal nerves spinal cord
Myelin Is the schwann cell's membrane. True or false. True
What increases the speed at which impulses are conducted and covers nerve fibers? Myelin
Unmyelinated neurons have a small wrapping of myelin in the CNS or PNS? PNS (In the CNS they are bare)
What cell myelinates axons in the CNS? Oligodendrocytes
What do nodes of Ranvier do? Reamplify action potential to increase conduction velocity
Both myelinated and unmyelinated axons have nodes of ranvier. True or False False only myelinated axons.
What are the two major difference of CNS and PNS Nodes of Ranvier? CNS-Gap between Oligodendrocytes (completely bare) PNS-Gap between Schwann cells (have some schwann cells)
The supporting cells of the nervous system are ____ cells. They do not carry action potential but provide supporting functions to neurons. Neuroglial cells
Neuroglial Cells in the CNS ____ repair while in the PNS neroglial cells such as schwann cells ____ repair. Suppress Promote
These neuroglial cells mylinate CNS axons. How many per cell? Oligodendrocytes 40
These CNS neuroglial cells are the blood brain barrier. Astrocytes
These CNS neuroglial cells line the free surfaces to produce CSF. Ependymal Cells
These neuroglial cells are the CNS macrophages. Microglia
Protoplasmic astrocytes are ___ matter and fibrous astrocytes are _____ matter. Gray White
What is the only cell in the CNS to be derived from mesenchyme? Microglia!
What are the two main PNS neuroglial cells? Satellite and Schwann Cells
Sympathetic, Parasympathetic, Both, Neither Older? Sympathetic
Sympathetic, Parasympathetic, Both, Neither Respond to stress Sympathetic
Sympathetic, Parasympathetic, Both, Neither Regulates and protects Parasympathetic
Sympathetic, Parasympathetic, Both, Neither No components of spinal nerves Parasympathetic
Sympathetic, Parasympathetic, Both, Neither Smooth muscle innervated by ___ Sympathetic
Sympathetic, Parasympathetic, Both, Neither Increases heart rate Sympathetic
Sympathetic, Parasympathetic, Both, Neither Sweat glands are innervated by? Sympathetic
Sympathetic, Parasympathetic, Both, Neither Erector pili muscles are innervated by sympathetic
Multipolar, Pseudounipolar, Both, Neither Peripheral process (axon) carries action potential toward the CNS Pseudounipolar
Multipolar, Pseudounipolar, Both, Neither All are PNS Pseudounipolar
Multipolar, Pseudounipolar, Both, Neither All ____ cells are derived from the neural crest. psudounipolar
Multipolar, Pseudounipolar, Both, Neither Cell bodies of autonomic neurons multipolar
Excitatory NTX's, Inhibitory NTX's, Both, Neither Open sodium channels Excitatory
Excitatory NTX's, Inhibitory NTX's, Both, Neither open Potassium channels Inhibitory
Excitatory NTX's, Inhibitory NTX's, Both, Neither Increase the membrane potential Excitatory
Excitatory NTX's, Inhibitory NTX's, Both, Neither Cause depolarization Excitatory
Excitatory NTX's, Inhibitory NTX's, Both, Neither If threshold is met, action potential; if not, they are called generator potentials Excitatory
Excitatory NTX's, Inhibitory NTX's, Both, Neither Create hyperpolarizing currents Inhibitory
Excitatory NTX's, Inhibitory NTX's, Both, Neither No action potential propagated, perhaps action potentials would even be stopped Inhibitory
GSA, GSE, Both, Neither Pseudounipolar neurons GSA
GSA, GSE, Both, Neither Multipolar nerons GSE
GSA, GSE, Both, Neither Nerve cell body is in ventral horn of spinal cord GSE
GSA, GSE, Both, Neither Nerve cell body is in dorsal root ganglia GSA
GSA, GSE, Both, Neither Comes from skin, tendons, skeletal muscle, bone, fascia, ligaments, and joint capsules GSA
GSA, GSE, Both, Neither Has both large and small cell bodies GSA
Final common pathway GSA, GSE, Both, Neither GSE
GSA, GSE, Both, Neither Developed from neural crest GSA
Ependymal cell layer, mantle layer, marginal zone, none of the above. White matter is in this area Marginal zone
Ependymal cell layer, mantle layer, marginal zone, none of the above. Grey matter is in this area Mantle layer
Ependymal cell layer, mantle layer, marginal zone, none of the above. Development of Astrocytes and Oligodendrocytes Ependymal cell layer
Ependymal cell layer, mantle layer, marginal zone, none of the above. All CNS neurons develop from this area. Marginal Zone
Ependymal cell layer, mantle layer, marginal zone, none of the above. GSE Mantle layer
Autonomic Ganglia, Sensory/dorsal root ganglia, both , neither. Pseudounipolar neurons Sensory/dorsal root
Autonomic Ganglia, Sensory/dorsal root ganglia, both , neither. eccentric nucleus autonomic ganglia
Autonomic Ganglia, Sensory/dorsal root ganglia, both , neither. Multipolar neurons Autonomic ganglia
Autonomic Ganglia, Sensory/dorsal root ganglia, both , neither. Cells of uniform size and shape. Autonomic ganglia
Autonomic Ganglia, Sensory/dorsal root ganglia, both , neither. Two sizes of cell Sensory/dorsal root ganglia
Autonomic Ganglia, Sensory/dorsal root ganglia, both , neither. Few satalite cells Autonomic ganglia
Fibrous, Protoplasmic, both neither Occurs only in white matter. Fibrous
Fibrous, Protoplasmic, both neither Large neuroglial cells found only in the grey matter Protoplasmic
Fibrous, Protoplasmic, both neither These astrocytes supply neuronal cell processes with metabolites. Fibrous
Fibrous, Protoplasmic, both neither Long, thin, branching processes emerge from cell body. Protoplasmic
Which of the following are not derivatives of the neural crest? Schwann cells, Satellite cells, psudounipolar neurons, multipolar neurons, autonomic neuron system, spinal ganglia, autonomic ganglia Multipolar neurons
The nerve cell body contains all except... Axon hillock, dendrite, nucleus, cytoplasm dendrite
Which one of these is NOT considered an astrocyte? Fibrous, Protoplasmic, perineuronal perineuronal
Which is not considered inhibitory NTX? Dopamine, Epinepherine, glycine epinepherine
GVA, GVE, Both, Neither. Sympathetic and parasympathetic GVE
GVA, GVE, Both, Neither. Start in CNS GVE
GVA, GVE, Both, Neither. Start in PNS GVA
Pseudounipolar neurons. GVA, GVE, Both, Neither. GVA
GVA, GVE, Both, Neither. Multipolar neurons GVE
GVA, GVE, Both, Neither. Has cell bodies that are both large and small GVA
GVA, GVE, Both, Neither. Nerve cell body in dorsal root ganglia GVA
GVA, GVE, Both, Neither. Postganglionic-unmyelinated axons and preganglionic-unmyelinated axons GVE
GVA, GVE, Both, Neither. Developed from the mantle zone GVA
Created by: T1NWHSU on 2013-04-01



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