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MUSC101 Exam 3

Music Appreciation

Romantic Era -Expansion of Industrial Revolution -Valves added to brass instruments -Cast-iron frame and thicker strings in piano -Musical Conservatories -Orchestral expansion
Style Traits of Romantic Music -beautiful and expressive melodies (rhapsodic) -Ingenious harmonies -expanded forms
Beethoven -Germany composer/pianist -from musical family -welcomed by Vienna -treated as equal, not as a servant -modified patronage -concert life and music publishing -hearing loss
Symphony No.5 in C Minor -composer: Beethoven -Minor to Major -Cyclical form - one rhythmic motive dominates the entire work
Symphony No.5 Mvt I: Allegro con, brio, sonata-allegro form "three short and a long," SSSL, dominates everything
Symphony No.5 Mvt II: Serene -double theme with variations -recurrence of cyclic rhythmic idea
Symphony No.5 Mvt III: Scherzo-and -trio -recurrence of cyclic rhythmic idea -third and fourth movement linked
Symphony No.5 Mvt IV: Sonata-allegro form -recurrence of cyclic rhythmic idea -extended coda
Romantic Song -In German: Lied (singular), Lieder (plural) -In French: Chanson(s) -In English: Art Song
Stophic music stays the same, but words change - verse-verse-verse - verse-chorus-verse-chorus
though-composed new material(music) throughout
Modified strophic strophic with "departure" (combines features of two other forms)
Genre-Lieder -created by Franz Schubert, a German language composer -voice and piano -German text -poetic themes of love and nature
Franz Schubert -Viennese composer -musical talent discovered early -socially shy (home and salon concerts) -death at early age(31)
Schubert's Music -classical and romantic traits -600-plus songs -piano work / Lieder
Erlkonig-composition -composer: Schubert -poet: Goethe -one singer / four characters -though-composed -piano establishes and drives atmosphere
Robert Schuman -from Germany -sought to be a pianist -turned to composition and music criticism -married a noted pianist/composer
Schuman's Music -Characteristics: impassioned melody, unique atmosphere(chromatic harmonies), driving rhythms -Lieder with several song cycles -4 symphonies -piano pieces
Style traits of romantic music -beautiful and expressive melodies (rhapsodic) -Ingenious harmonies - Chromaticism -Expanded forms - long/"stretched," molded to personal purpose
Sonata an instrumental work for one or two instruments, usually consisting of three or four contrasting movements
"Moonlight" Sonata -Beethoven: Op.7, No.21 -1st Mvt descending, negative -2nd Mvt ascending, positive -3rd Mvt flat -4th Mvt diminution, sounds like laughter
Opus means work
"Moonlight" Sonata Mvt 1 -delicate, singing melody -etheral mood/right-hand arpeggios -modified strophic form
arpeggios a broken chord
"Moonlight" Sonata Mvt 2 -allegretto tempo (moderately fast) -scherzo-and-trio form -Franz Liszt described the second movement as "a flower between two chasms"
"Moonlight" Sonata Mvt 3 -most important movement last -sonata-allegro form -ferocity is astonishing
"Kreutzer" Sonata -Beethoven-Violin Sonata No.9, Op.47, (ca.46 min. long) -three movements: sonata allegro, theme and variation, rondo
Rondo musical form in which the first section recurs, usually in the tonic key common configurations include: A-B-A-C-A-B-A
Beethoven Cello Sonata No.2 -two movements: adagio sostenudo esspressivo- allegro molto piu tosto presto, and rondo
Tempo Rubato (robbed tempo or borrowed time) a performance practice of the Romantic Era in which a performer seems to slow down to relish a phrase, and then hurry forward-imposing his or her personal expression upon the written note values
Clara Schumann -lived in Germany -pianist(composer) -first public concert at nine -married Robert Schumann over her father's permission -dedicated interpreter of Robert's music -Long-time friend of Johannes Brahms -performed here music early in her career
Clara Schumann's Music -difficult and deeply introspective -lieder -choral pieces -piano trio (first repartee for women) -piano music (including a concerto)
Concerto -musical composition of three movements where a solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra
Character Piece (book calls them short lyric piano pieces) -convenient term for a large repertory of short, 19th- century compositions, mostly for piano, or for piano and one other instrument -designed to express a define mood, character or programmatic idea -in character of: "Prelude," "Intermezzo," "Impromptu
Impromptu a musical composition that sounds extemporaneous and unrehearsed
Etude (French) a study like piece that focuses on a particular technical challenge
Polanaise a stately polish processional and dance in triple meter
Mazurka a lively polish dance resembling a polka in triple meter
Romantic Style melody -thematic transformation -com-positional technique -"Alternation of the character of a theme by means of subtle changes in dynamics, orchestration, or rhythms, when it returns to a related movement of section"
Chopin - composer -from Poland -Father was French -career in Paris (because of the war in Poland) -The "poet of the piano"- because he had a gentle personality -Paramour of Geoge Sand (Aurora Dudevant)-change her name to get her pieces written -early death at age 39
Chopin's Music -Smaller forms: nocturnes, preludes, impromptus, waltzes, mazurkas, etudes -Lager: ballades, polonaises, a fantasy, sonatas,piano concertos
Mazurka in B-flat minor, Op.24, No.4 -form: Intro-A-B-A-B-A-C-D-A (quasi-rittornello) -tempo rubato repetition and thematic composition -vocally inspired melodies
Staccato dittached artticulation
Lagatto smoothly connected
genre- program music instrumental music with a literary or pictorial association
absolute music is opposite of program music & does not paint a picture.
delacroix from Paris; painter. Paris= major music center
Romanticism- general characteristic & theme emotional subjectivity, nature, nationalism, fantasy
what is nationalism? show of love of homeland through folk songs in classical music
What are examples of "fantasy' from Romanticism period? Shelley's "Frankenstein" wrote when he was 18; Symphonic fantastique; Chivalry/the romance of the middle ages
What are the types (genres) forms that are considered general? miniature compositions and monumental compositions
Describe the elements of a miniature composiition designed for intimate surrounding; intense mood; few resources (1 singer & 1 piano; art song/lieder/chansons; character pieces 1 pianio
Describe the elements of a monumental composiition designed for large halls; huge #'s of performers; several hours in duration; Requiem, Berlioz
What are the 4 main types of program music of the Romantic Era? 1.Concert overture 2.Incidental music 3.Program symphony 4.Symphonic poem
What is a concert overture? an independent one movement work to open a concert; Romantic Era; genre- program music
What is incidental music? Romantic Era; genre- program music- all music needed to present a dramatic presentation.
what is program symphony music? Romantic Era; genre- program music- musical work in several movements that together tell a story.
what is symphonic poem? Romantic Era; genre- program music- also called a TONE POEM; large single movement that is several segments tell a story; By Franz List
A Compose- Berlioz French, composer, journalist & conductor; Paris & young France; Beethoven & Shakespeare; Prix de Rome; Harriet Smithoson
What is Prix de Rome? Rome prize of all payed for two years to write music in Rome
Describe Berlioz's music Dramatic, vivid & powerful; huge forces; instrumental music: program symphonies, concert overtures; vocal music: operas, sacred worked; "the creator of the modern orchestra"- classic text on orchestration
Notes on a composition- Symphonic fantastique Composer: Berlioz; Genre: program symphony;5 movements; sic-let composition; Idee fixe (Harriet)desire/opium induced nightmare.
Movement IV (Symphonic fantastique) composer: Berlioz; "March to the Scaffold"; Last view of "Infernal Passion/Beloved"; brief solo clarinet idee fixe;Pizzicato notes
What are Pizzicato notes? plucking the notes with your finger instead of the bow; used in Movement IV (Symphonic fantastique)
Movement V (Symphonic fantastique) song d'une nuit: use of Gregorian dies irea (day of death); expanded orchestration: church bells & ophicleide; unusual effects: con lego
what does con lego mean? "with the wood"; used in Movement V (Symphonic fantastique); playing with the wood of the bow
What style (genre) of music reflects pride for the homeland expressed in music that projects the spirit of the people and a place? Musial Nationalism
What are the programs based on in musical nationalism genre? national hero, historic event, scene of beauty, land, etc.
What composer is associated with Musial Nationalism? Franz Liszt
What is Franz List known for? Hungarian Nationalism; Father of modern piano technique;
Who was Franz List's friend and what did he do? Berlioz; arranged symphony for the piano
Who was the "most dazzling of the heroic virtuosos?" Franz Liszt
Why was Fran List regarded as the "most dazzling of the heroic virtuosos?" fabulous digiital dexterity; passionate performace; great showman; undeniable sexulaity
Who composed the Hungarian Rhapsody, No. 5 in E minor? Franz Liszt
Hungarian Rhapsody, No. 5 in E minor was considered a Laboratory experience, why? theme in cello, then violin, then solo cello; gypsy violins; somber music; conductor was sitting because he was dying of cancer; all men except for 1 woman harp player.
Who was Bedrich Smetana? Bohemia composer; revolution against Austria; Naitionalist operas e.g. The Bantered Bride
Who was the Bohemian composer who made a cycle of 6 poems, Ma Vast, "Motherland" and his syphilis made him deaf? Bedrich Smetana
Notes on composition "Vitava" composer: Bedrich Smetana; second of the symphonic poems from Ma Vast; River Ultava ("Maldau" in German)
What does the music in River Ultava suggest? fantasy scenes along the shore of the river
What are the themes in River Ultava ? Two rivulets theme- The river theme; Fox Hunt (french horns); Dance @ peasant wedding; water nymphs in the moonlight; the river theme; St. John rapids; The river theme in major; the great castes & cathedrals in Prague
Part Song -for small or "smallish" ensembles -primarily honophonic -"Incidental polyphony" -performed frequently, with one voice per part
Liebeslieder Waltzer -composer: Brahms -"love song waltzes" -SATB and piano (four hand) 38 waltzes in two sets
Choral Society -chorus as an artistic outlet for middle classes -social endeavor -small and large -increasing popular in late 1900's
Verdi -from Italy -operas, church music
Manzoni Requiem (Verdi) -to big for liturgical presentation -movement Libera me: Dies irae ("Day of ire/Judgement"), requiem aeternam ("Eternal rest")
Mahler -from Bohemia / worked in Vienna -closed his career in NY City -symphonies and songs -composed "Resurrection Symphony": soloist, four-part chorus, and orchestra, climax on top of climax on top of climax
Lyric Opera romantic opera from France by Bizet
Grand Opera -romantic opera from France by Gounod -focusing on serious, historical plots with huge choruses, crowd scenes, elaborate dance episodes, ornate costumes, and spectacular scenery
Music Drama romantic opera from Germany by Wagner
Opera seria romantic opera from Italy by Verdi
Verismo romantic opera from Italy by Puccini
Bel canto -romantic opera from Italy -composers: Rossini, Donizetti, Bellini -"Beautiful Singing" -long melodic phrases -extreme vocal colortoura / melisma / fioratuna (other name for coloroura)
Number Opera -Italian Opera -series of movements (or "musical numbers") -big arias for sopranos of tenor -love duet -big chorus
Barber of Seville -composer: Gioacchino Rossini
Puccini -Italy -great operatic successes
Madama Butterfly -composer: Puccini -verismo and exoticism -based on play and short story -disastrous premiere, then revised -Cio-Cio-San is central tragi-heroic character
Ballet -a theatrical performance by a dancing group, usually with costumes and scenery, to the accompaniment of music, but customarily without singing or speech -style characteristics: tells a story (program music), multi-movement, thematic transformation
Tchaikovsky -Russian composer -not a Russian nationalist -disastrous marriage because of his homosexuality -never met, Nadezhada von Meck by her stipulation -died suddenly at age 53
Sleeping Beauty -composer: Tchaikovsky -about Princess Auora
Thematic Transformation theme repeats multiple times
Aria highest manifestation of a song, exert from a larger work
Wagner (Vahgner) -From Germany -"Grand opera"-nationalistic operas -wrote own libretti -wrote music drama
Gesamtkunstwerk - perfect mingling of... music, poetry & prose, acting & dancing, plastic art and architecture
Leidmotif (definition) 1: a melodic phrase or figure (motive/theme) that evokes...an idea, person, or situation 2: a dominant recurring theme
Der Ring de Nibelungen -means: The Ring of Nibelungen -I: Das Rheingold -II: Die Walkure (the valkyries) -III: Siegfried (true hero) -IV: Gotterdammerung (the twilight of the God) -characters: Wotan, Loge, Brunnhilde, Siegfried
Created by: NickUD