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Ch. 17 vocabulary


Ames test identify which chemicals cause mutation
Carcinogens chemicals capable of causing mutations that lead to cancer
Constitutive system when a system is mutationally always turned on and can't be turned off
Frame-shift deletions cause the letters of the codon to be completely out of register so that the words are lost from that point onward
Genotype genetic sequences of the cell
Genotypic changes functional losses--measured by changes in the DNA sequence
Heritable mutations passed on to future generations--may be detrimental by disrupting functions of proteins for which they code--may prove beneficial to the cell
Induced mutations mutations caused by man-made mutagens
In-frame deletions deletions that remove 3 nucleotides (or multiples of 3)--result in the loss of one or more amino acids--sequence that occurs after deletion still in correct register or frame
Insertions result in same type of changes as deletions
Lactose auxotroph cells that carry mutations that change phenotypes--cell that no longer utilize lactose
Mutagens chemicals and other factors not normally found in nature that alter DNA sequence
Mutations change in DNA sequence
Nonsense mutations convert a coding triplet into a stop codon, so the protein terminates prematurely
Phenotype physical characteristics--implies that the cells are unable to metabolize lactose--defective gene, however is unknown
Rearrangements part of the DNA sequence is moved to a new location
Regulatory mutations Since this kind of mutational control occurs outside of structural genes that are affected
Spontaneous mutations mutations that occur by mistakes in DNA synthesis or by exposure to ultraviolet rays from rays from things such as sunlight or tanning lights
Structural genes gene sequences that code for actual proteins
Substitution mutations likely to change whichever amino acids is located at the corresponding protein position
Created by: heatherlvn