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Ch, 13 vocabulary


Aliquotes small samples of the culture
Anabolism use of energy and building blocks to produce new cellular materials, such as macromolecules
Anaerobic respiration bacteria in the abswence of oxygen--utilize nitrate/sulfate as the final electron acceptor
Autolytic bacteria that produce enzymes that cause their own lysis or break down
Binary fission (cell division) bacterial cells grow by dividing and forming 2 progeny cells that are equal to the original cell
Catabolism breakdown of complex materials into building blocks/energy--cells use for synthesis--making more cellular chemicals
Cell division (binary fission) bacterial cells grow by dividing and forming two progeny cells that are equal to the original cell
Chemosynthetic metabolism bacteria can use salts found in rock as an energy source--require little to grow--generally autotrophs--make organic chemicals from carbon dioxide, chemicals dissolved in water, energy from rocks
Colony forming unit CFU--arises from single diluted cell--represents viable bacterial cells--those cells that could grow and form a colony
Death phase cells are not receiving sufficient energy or nutrients to maintain viability
Decline phase (death phase) cells not receiving sufficient energy or nutrients to maintain viability
Denature enzymes unfold when they are boiled and are no longer active
Dilution used to determine bacterial cell numbers--dilutions performed at each time point--aliquots spread on petri dishes--incubate--count how many colonies grow--resulting colony count multiplied by dilution factor to know how many bacteria in original sample
Electron transport chain consists of a series of carriers in the membrane--carriers use electron-derived energy to pump protons out of cell--creates proton gradient with higher concentration on outside--protons flow back into cell through proteinaceous carrier ATP
Exponential growth when bacteria double every constant period of time
Feedback inhibition (feedback regulation) mechanisms of gene expression control--bacteria can preclude the need to make thousands of temp. unneeded proteins that would otherwise reduce growth efficiency dramatically
Fermentation process of incomplete catabolism of sugars to produce alcohol in wines
Generation division or doubling of bacteria
Glycolysis in cells utilizing glucose, the glucose is transported to the inside and oxidized
Krebs cycle (TCA cycle--tricarboxylic acid cycle) oxygen is used to degrade carbon completely to carbon dioxide, water, ATP, energy-containing electrons--passed on to te electron transport chain
Lag phase cells adapting to rich supply of nutrients in preparation for growth
Log phase cells start to multiply by doubling every perhaps 30 minutes
Metabolism all chemical processes that occur in a cell
Oxidative phosphorylation transfer of electrons to oxygen coupled to the synthesis of ATP
Product sucrose in reaction
Pyruvate six-carbon sugar is converted into two three-carbon acids, called pyruvic acid
Reactants (substrates) glucose and fructose in reaction
Reaction one enzyme can use the sugars glucose and fructose and combine them to disaccharide sucrose--common table sugar
Respiration passage of electrons to oxygen to produce water
Stationary phase cells maintain cell number but not able to produce new cells--dying and producing new cells at about the same rate
Substrates (reactants) glucose and fructose in reaction
Total cell count resulting number of dilutions
Turbidity (blank)
Viable counts (blank)
Created by: heatherlvn